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Berthold-Pluta A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Pluta A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Garbowska M.,Prof Waclaw Dabrowski Institute Of Agricultural And Food Biotechnology
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2015

Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B.cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B.cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B.cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B.cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. Invitro studies revealed that both vegetative B.cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B.cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B.cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B.cereus cells considerably. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Rogalski M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Szterk A.,Prof Waclaw Dabrowski Institute Of Agricultural And Food Biotechnology
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

Extruded products, particularly those which are corn-based, are widely consumed salty or sweet snacks; moreover, they very often provide a basis for breakfast for people around the world. Extruded products are characterised by a low nutritional value, and a particularly low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 group. An attempt was made to enrich extruded corn crisps with α-linolenic acid (ALA) through the addition of refined linseed oil at an amount of 5 %. Corn crisps were produced with the addition of the oil concerned so that the concentration of ALA in the finished product was at least 2 g 100 g-1 (in a portion). With such a content of ALA, the crisps may be classified as 'functional food' in accordance with Commission Regulation (EU) No 432/2012 of May 2012. The following were tested: oxidative stability, and changes to the content of ALA during 6-month storage of crisps with the addition of linseed oil and various concentrations of δ-tocopherol and ascorbic acid. The crisps were packed in polyamide/polyethylene barrier film packages (30/70 μm), using either atmospheric air of argon for the packaging process. The study showed that with each applied concentration of δ-tocopherol added to the linseed oil (200-800 mg 100 g-1), it had a strong pro-oxidant effect. Packaging in argon atmosphere play very protective role in ALA stabilisation in functional corn crisp. © 2015 AOCS.

Szterk A.,Prof Waclaw Dabrowski Institute Of Agricultural And Food Biotechnology
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to determine level of azaarenes (PANHs) in raw pork and to investigate their formation during meat frying or grilling, in particular to verify a suggestion that endogenous vitamin E might inhibit production of azaarenes. Azaarene concentration in raw pork samples from various origins ranged from 2.75ngg-1 to 3.69ngg-1 (2.75-2.93ngg-1 in meat of Polish Landrace pigs, 3.00-3.69ngg-1 in meat of hybrid Duroc×Polish Landrance pigs). PANH formation during frying of pork meat was not confirmed. On the other hand, PANHs were indeed formed during grilling; their levels ranged from 6.21ngg-1 to 8.08ngg-1. No inhibition influence of vitamin E on formation of PANHs on was found either in fried or grilled pork meat. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Czerwonka M.,Medical University of Warsaw | Szterk A.,Prof Waclaw Dabrowski Institute Of Agricultural And Food Biotechnology
Meat Science | Year: 2015

The impact of meat cuts (nine muscles and liver) and thermal processing on selected mineral (potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, including heme form) concentration in beef from Holstein-Friesian bulls was evaluated in the present study. The mineral's content widely varied depending on the tissue type (skeletal muscles/liver, except zinc) and between the different bovine muscles. The greatest diversity between the muscles demonstrated was zinc (3.5-6.9mg100g-1f/w) and iron (1.7-2.3mg100g-1f/w), however, there were no significant differences in heme iron to total iron ratio (average 74%). Thermal processes conducted on longissimus dorsi muscles also significantly affected mineral concentration. Grilled, roasted and fried bovine meat was characterised by a higher content (by 6-26%) of most studied minerals (except sodium) as compared to raw meat. Sodium levels in processed meat were 16-33% lower than in raw samples. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Szterk A.,Prof Waclaw Dabrowski Institute Of Agricultural And Food Biotechnology | Jesionkowska K.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one of the most cancerogenic and mutagenic compounds present in food products. Thus, the researches on discovering new factors influencing formation of HAAs in food as well as the ways of reduction these compounds in food products are one of the main directions in food science. These investigations should led to the production of tasty food with significantly decrease content of HAAs. Unfortunately, there is no scientific research which are investigating the concentration of HAA together with the sensory properties of the products (e.g. grilled beef meat). The performance of the typical grilling process (180°C and 280°C) of beef meat (rib eye, sirloin and roast beef) stored in a raw state during 5 and 15 days in cooling condition and, than sensory evaluation and determination of correlation between overall sensory quality and content of HAA was the objective of presented study. This experiment confirmed that through proper selection parameters of culinary processing parameters such as thermal meat processing, the type of the culinary element of the beef meat and time of its storage in cooling conditions it is possible to ensure high overall sensory quality along with low content of HAA forming during grilling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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