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Olteanu E.D.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Filip G.A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Clichici S.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Daicoviciu D.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology | Year: 2012

UVB is a major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention represents an important strategy in protecting the skin against the detrimental effects of ultraviolet B (UVB). We investigated the activity of Calluna vulgaris (Cv) delivered via a hydrogel on 3 main pathways (oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage) on skin exposed to multiple doses of UVB in SKH-1 mice. Fifty female mice were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, vehicle, UVB irradiated, Cv + UVB irradiated, and Cv + vehicle + UVB irradiated. The extract was applied topically on the skin in a dose of 4 mg polyphenols/cm2 30 minutes before each UVB (240 mJ/cm2) exposure over 10 consecutive days. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) levels, sunburn cell formation and epidermal thickness, and the number of epidermal cell layers in skin were evaluated 24 hours after the last treatment. UVB increased cytokine levels (P < 0.001), formation of CPDs (P < 0.001) and sunburn cells (P < 0.001), and the epidermal thickness and number of epidermal cell layers (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. The topical application of Cv protected the skin against inflammation and DNA damage, as shown by a decreased number of CPDs (P < 0.001) and sunburn cells (P < 0.001). The administration of Cv via hydrogel may be a viable method for chemoprevention. © 2012 Begell House, Inc. Source


Filip A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Daicoviciu D.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Clichici S.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Mocan T.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2011

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is the major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. We studied the photoprotective activity of Calluna vulgaris and red grape seed (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety [BM]) extracts in vivo in an SKH-1 hairless mice skin model. Fifty 8-week-old female SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10 each): controls, UVB-irradiated, C. vulgaris plus UVB-irradiated, BM plus UVB-irradiated, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) plus UVB-irradiated. A dose of 4 mg/mouse per cm 2 of skin area for both extracts was topically applied to the mice 30 minutes before a single-dose (240 mJ/cm 2) UVB exposure. EGCG dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 6.6; 0.067 M) was administered at 2 mg/mouse per cm 2. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase 3 activity were determined in skin homogenates 24 hours after irradiation. A single dose of UVB increased GSH levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in the exposed skin. C. vulgaris and BM pretreatment significantly decreased GSH formation and glutathione peroxidase activity (P <.001) and inhibited UVB-induced lipid peroxidation (P <.0001) and nitric oxide production (C. vulgaris: P <.06). Topical treatments with C. vulgaris and particularly BM extracts (P <.002) significantly reduced caspase 3 activity, indicating that the cells were protected against apoptosis. These results suggest that C. vulgaris and BM extracts might be chemopreventive candidates for reducing UV-induced risk for skin cancer. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Filip G.A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Postescu I.D.,Prof I Chiricuta Oncologic Institute | Bolfa P.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Catoi C.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Molecular mechanisms concerning the modulation of nitrosative stress, signal transduction and proliferation/apoptosis by a grape seed extract, Burgund Mare variety (BM), in SKH-1 mice exposed to UVB, were investigated. The animals were irradiated with single and multiple doses of UVB in 10 consecutive days. In each experiment were used five groups of animals: control, vehicle, UVB irradiated, vehicle+UVB, BM+UVB. The extract was applied topically, 30min before each UVB exposure, in a dose of 4mg total polyphenols/cm2. BM remarkably inhibited UVB-induced activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and therefore generation of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrotyrosine, in a UVB single dose regimen. BM also suppressed NF-kB activation by UVB but did not affect the activity of total ERK 1/2. In multiple UVB irradiations, BM increased NO formation and total ERK 1/2 activity and reduced iNOS activity and nitrotyrosine levels, inhibited cell proliferation, diminished p53 and caspase-3 immunoreactivities and increased the percentage of Bcl-2 positive cells. We concluded that BM modulates the apoptotic response of SKH-1 mice skin in UVB irradiation by the inhibition of p53, caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expressions, as well as by reducing the activation of iNOS and NF-kB. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Filip A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Postescu I.D.,Prof I Chiricuta Oncologic Institute | Tatomir C.,Prof I Chiricuta Oncologic Institute | Muresan A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Clichici S.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a new concept in the attempt to reduce the occurrence of skin cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms caused by ultraviolet light exposure remain still unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the mechanisms involved in the action of a Calluna vulgaris (Cv) extract, administered in single or multiple doses (10 consecutive days), on UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice. The extract was topically applied 30 min before each UVB exposure in two doses (2.5 and 4 mg total polyphenolic content/40 μl/cm2). At 24 hours after the last treatment, total mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42MAPkinase, ERK 1/2), nuclear factor-κB (phospho-NF-κB p65), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1) levels were measured in skin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MMP-2 and -9 activities were additionally evaluated by zymography. One topical application of Cv extract reduced the secretion (p<0.004) and inhibited MMP-9 activity UVB-mediated (54% inhibition) via inhibition of NF-κB activation (68% inhibition). In multiple UVB exposures, both doses of Cv extract induced the increase of ERK 1/2 level in correlation with activation of NF-κB and reduced the secretion (p<0.04) and activation of MMP-9 (62% inhibition). Pretreatment with Cv diminished the MMP-2 protein secretion only in one dose UVB-irradiated group (p<0.0001) and decreased TIMP-1 level (p<0.001). These results demonstrated the dual behavior of Cv extract in skin protection against single versus multiple doses of UVB irradiation. Source

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