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Cowley H.,Captozyme Inc. | Yan Q.,Captozyme Inc. | Koetzner L.,Product Safety Laboratories | Dolan L.,Burdock Group | And 2 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Nephure™ is a proprietary oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) enzyme being developed as a food ingredient. In this study, the safety of Nephure™ was evaluated in a bacterial mutagenicity assay and in a sub-chronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats. Nephure™ did not show any mutagenic properties in the mutagenicity assay. In the 13-week sub-chronic oral toxicity study in which 10 Sprague Dawley rats per sex were administered 0, 118, 235 and 475 mg/kg bw/day (8260, 16450 and 33,250 Units/kg bw/day, respectively) of Nephure™ by gavage, male and female rats did not show any test article-related clinical observations or effects on body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, ophthalmology, functional observational battery parameters or motor activity. Furthermore, there were no changes in coagulation, clinical chemistry, urinalysis or hematology parameters, macroscopic/microscopic findings or organ weights that could be attributed to the test article. Based on these results, Nephure™ was not mutagenic and the no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the 13-week study was determined to be 475 mg/kg bw/day (33,250 Units/kg bw/day). Evaluation of the estimated consumption of Nephure™, generation of the metabolite formate, and the current safety studies resulted in a conclusion of a tolerable upper limit of 3450 Units of OxDC activity/day (57.5 Units activity/kg bw/day), when Nephure™ is added to food to decrease dietary oxalate. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Public Health England, INERIS, WIL Research, Harlan Laboratories and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2015

Acute inhalation studies are conducted in animals as part of chemical hazard identification and characterisation, including for classification and labelling purposes. Current accepted methods use death as an endpoint (OECD TG403 and TG436), whereas the fixed concentration procedure (FCP) (draft OECD TG433) uses fewer animals and replaces lethality as an endpoint with evident toxicity. Evident toxicity is defined as clear signs of toxicity that predict exposure to the next highest concentration will cause severe toxicity or death in most animals. A global initiative including 20 organisations, led by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) has shared data on the clinical signs recorded during acute inhalation studies for 172 substances (primarily dusts or mists) with the aim of making evident toxicity more objective and transferable between laboratories. Pairs of studies (5 male or 5 female rats) with at least a two-fold change in concentration were analysed to determine if there are any signs at the lower dose that could have predicted severe toxicity or death at the higher concentration. The results show that signs such as body weight loss (>10% pre-dosing weight), irregular respiration, tremors and hypoactivity, seen at least once in at least one animal after the day of dosing are highly predictive (positive predictive value > 90%) of severe toxicity or death at the next highest concentration. The working group has used these data to propose changes to TG433 that incorporate a clear indication of the clinical signs that define evident toxicity.


Heimbach J.T.,JHeimbach LLC | Egawa H.,DSP Gokyo Food and Chemical Co | Marone P.A.,Product Safety Laboratories | Bauter M.R.,Product Safety Laboratories | Kennepohl E.,Equinox Scientific Services
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2013

Forty male and 40 female Crl:SD® CD® IGS rats were fed diets containing 0, 40 000, 80 000, or 120 000 ppm tamarind seed polysaccharide (equivalent to 3450.8, 6738.9, or 10 597.1 mg/kg bw/day and 3602.1, 7190.1, or 10 690.7 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively) for 28 days. Animals were observed for adverse clinical signs, body weight, feed consumption, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis values were recorded, and at the end of the study the rats underwent a full necropsy. Functional Observational Battery (FOB) and Motor Activity (MA) tests were performed on all animals. There were no mortalities, no clinical or ophthalmologic signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency, FOB or MA findings associated with the administration of tamarind seed polysaccharide. Initial statistically significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption resolved after the first week and were considered the result of reduced palatability. There were no adverse changes in hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters in male or female rats considered the result of test substance administration. At necropsy, there were no macroscopic, histopathological findings, estrus cycle, or organ weight changes deemed related to administration of the test substance. Under the conditions of this study and based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for tamarind seed polysaccharide in the diet was the highest concentration tested of 120 000 ppm (equivalent to 10 597 mg/kg bw/day and 10 691 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats, respectively). © 2013 The Author(s).


Szabo N.J.,Burdock Group | Matulka R.A.,Burdock Group | Marone P.A.,Product Safety Laboratories | Bauter M.R.,Product Safety Laboratories | And 7 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Numbers of macro- and microalgae have been used as food sources in various cultures for centuries. Several microalgae are currently being developed as modern food ingredients. The dietary safety of oleic-rich microalgal oil produced using a heterotrophic fermentation process was assessed in a 13-week feeding trial in rats with genotoxic potential evaluated using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the genotoxicity assays, the test oil was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli tester strains (≤5000. μg/plate) with or without metabolic activation. Further, no clastogenic response occurred in chromosome aberration assays in the bone marrow of mice administered a single intraperitoneal dose (2000. mg/kg). In the subchronic study, rats consumed feed containing 0, 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000. ppm oleic-rich oil for 90. days. No treatment-related mortalities or adverse effects occurred in general condition, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights or histopathology. Although several endpoints exhibited statistically significant effects, none were dose-related or considered adverse. Taking all studies into consideration, the NOAEL for the oleic-rich oil was 100,000. ppm, the highest concentration tested and equivalent to dietary NOAELs of 5200. mg/kg bw/day and 6419. mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Burdock Group and Product Safety Laboratories
Type: | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2016

Two new strains of Sphingomonas elodea (designated as PHP1 and PBAD1) were tested for toxicity and pathogenicity in healthy Sprague-Dawley CD() IGS rats in separate studies. In each study, twelve rats/sex were administered 10(8) viable cells/rat by oral gavage, and four untreated rats/sex served as controls. Blood, feces, and selected organs/tissues collected at various times over the course of the 22 day study were evaluated for the presence of PHP1 or PBAD1 (depending on the study) by a validated method, to determine the potential for survival, propagation, or infectivity of PHP1 and PBAD1 cells in the rat. No mortalities, test substance-related changes in clinical or macroscopic findings, body weight or body weight gain were observed in treated animals compared with controls, indicating a lack of toxicity. PHP1 or PBAD1 were not detected in the tissue, fecal or fluid samples collected from treated animals. Therefore, neither PHP1 nor PBAD1 were pathogenic or acutely toxic under the conditions of the studies.


PubMed | Purdue Pharma and Product Safety Laboratories
Type: | Journal: Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods | Year: 2016

Whole body plethysmography using unrestrained animals is a common technique for assessing the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology studies in rats. However, wide variations in experimental technique make cross laboratory comparison of data difficult and raise concerns that non-appropriate conditions may mask the deleterious effects of test compounds - in particular with suspected respiratory depressants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the robustness of arterial blood gas analysis as an alternative to plethysmography in rats. We sought to do this by assessing the effect of different vehicles and times post-surgical catheterization on blood gas measurements, in addition to determining sensitivity to multiple opioids. Furthermore, we determined intra-lab variability from multiple datasets utilizing morphine and generated within a single lab and lastly, inter-lab variability was measured by comparing datasets generated in two separate labs. Overall, our data show that arterial blood gas analysis is a measure that is both flexible in terms of experimental conditions and highly sensitive to respiratory depressants, two key limitations when using plethysmography. As such, our data strongly advocate the adoption of arterial blood gas analysis as an investigative approach to reliably examine the respiratory depressant effects of opioids.

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