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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Klop G.,Wageningen University | Ellis J.L.,Wageningen University | Blok M.C.,Product Board Animal Feed | Brandsma G.G.,Product Board Animal Feed | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

SUMMARY In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P requirements. Although variation in P content of milk can affect the efficiency of P utilization for milk production (i.e. the fraction of ingested P that is incorporated in milk), this variation is poorly understood. It was hypothesized that the P content of milk is related to both milk protein and milk lactose content, but not necessarily to milk fat content. Three existing experiments comprising individual animal data on milk yield and fat, protein, lactose and P content of milk (in total 278 observations from 121 cows) were analysed to evaluate this hypothesis using a mixed model analysis. The models including the effects of both protein and lactose content of milk yielded better prediction of milk P content in terms of root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) statistics than models with only protein included as prediction variable; however, estimates of effect sizes varied between studies. The inclusion of milk fat content in equations already including protein and lactose did not further improve prediction of milk P content. Equations developed to describe the relationship between milk protein and lactose contents (g/kg) and milk P content (g/kg) were: (Expt 1) P in milk=-0·44(±0·179)+0·0253(±0·00300)×milk protein+0·0133(±0·00382)×milk lactose (RMSPE: 5·2%; CCC: 0·71); (Expt 2) P in milk=-0·26 (±0·347)+0·0174(±0·00328)×milk protein+0·0143 (±0·00611)×milk lactose (RMSPE: 6·3%; CCC: 0·40); and (Expt 3) P in milk=-0·36(±0·255)+0·0131(±0·00230)×milk protein+0·0193(±0·00490)×milk lactose (RMSPE: 6·5%; CCC: 0·55). Analysis of the three experiments combined, treating study as a random effect, resulted in the following equation to describe the same relationship as in the individual study equations: P in milk=-0·64(±0·168)+0·0223(±0·00236)×milk protein+0·0191(±0·00316)×milk lactose (RMSPE: 6·2%; CCC: 0·61). Although significant relationships between milk protein, milk lactose and milk P were found, a considerable portion of the observed variation remained unexplained, implying that factors other than milk composition may affect the P content of milk. The equations developed may be used to replace current fixed milk P contents assumed in P requirement systems for cattle. © Cambridge University Press 2014. Source


De Boever J.L.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Blok M.C.,Product Board Animal Feed | Millet S.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Vanacker J.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | De Campeneere S.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research
Animal | Year: 2014

The chemical composition inclusive amino acids (AAs) and the energy and protein value of three wheat, three maize and seven blend (mainly wheat) dried distillers grains and solubles (DDGS) were determined. The net energy for lactation (NEL) was derived from digestion coefficients obtained with sheep. The digestible protein in the intestines (DVE) and the degraded protein balance (OEB) were determined by nylon bag incubations in the rumen and the intestines of cannulated cows. Additional chemical parameters like acid-detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), protein solubility in water, in borate-phosphate buffer and in pepsin-HCl, in vitro digestibility (cellulase, protease, rumen fluid) and colour scores (L∗, a∗, b∗) were evaluated as potential predictors of the energy and protein value. Compared to wheat DDGS (WDDGS), maize DDGS (MDDGS) had a higher NEL-value (8.49 v. 7.38 MJ/kg DM), a higher DVE-content (216 v. 198 g/kg DM) and a lower OEB-value (14 v. 66 g/kg DM). The higher energy value of MDDGS was mainly due to the higher crude fat (CFA) content (145 v. 76 g/kg DM) and also to better digestible cell-walls, whereas the higher protein value was mainly due to the higher percentage of rumen bypass protein (RBP: 69.8 v. 55.6%). The NEL-value of blend DDGS (BDDGS) was in between that of the pure DDGS-types, whereas its DVE-value was similar to MDDGS. Although lower in CP and total AAs, MDDGS provided a similar amount of essential AAs as the other DDGS-types. Lysine content was most reduced in the production of WDDGS and cysteine in MDDGS. Fat content explained 68.6% of the variation in NEL, with hemicellulose and crude ash as extra explaining variables. The best predictor for RBP as well as for OEB was the protein solubility in pepsin-HCl (R2 = 77.3% and 83.5%). Intestinal digestibility of RBP could best be predicted by ADF (R3 = 73.6%) and the combination of CFA and NDF could explain 60.2% of the variation in the content of absorbable microbial protein. The availability of AAs could accurately be predicted from the rumen bypass and intestinal digestibility of CP. © The Animal Consortium 2014. Source


Ali M.,Wageningen University | Ali M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Weisbjerg M.R.,University of Aarhus | Cone J.W.,Wageningen University | And 5 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The Dutch feed evaluation system for ruminants uses assumptions and regression equations to estimate the intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and starch. These assumptions and equations are based on many different studies, obtained over a very long period. The objective of this study was to develop a unique dataset on the ruminal degradability and the postruminal digestibility of CP, NDF (aNDFom, amylase neutral detergent fibre organic matter basis) and starch in maize and grass silages, using the mobile nylon bag technique. Twenty samples of maize silage and 20 samples of grass silage were used. The samples were selected to represent a broad range in digestibility and chemical composition. Prior to the intestinal incubations, samples were incubated in the rumen for 6. h (starch), 12. h (CP) or 24. h (aNDFom) using the rumen nylon bag technique. Residues from the rumen incubations were transferred to mobile nylon bags and inserted in the duodenum through a cannula. Half of the bags for CP and starch were collected from the ileal cannula and the remaining half of the bags from the faeces. For aNDFom, all the bags were collected from faeces. There was a large variation in the rumen degradability and the intestinal digestibility (small and/or large intestine) of CP, aNDFom and starch. The rumen degradable fractions, the intestinal digestible fractions and the total tract undigested fractions of CP, aNDFom and starch were influenced by their proportions in the maize and grass silages. The results proved the assumption of the Dutch feed evaluation system that the rumen undegraded starch is completely digested in the small intestine of dairy cows. Regression showed that the rumen degradability, the intestinal digestibility and the total tract undigested contents were influenced by the chemical composition of the maize and grass silages. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ali M.,Wageningen University | Ali M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Van Duinkerken G.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Cone J.W.,Wageningen University | And 6 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014

Several in situ studies have been conducted on maize silages to determine the effect of individual factors such as maturity stage, chop length and ensiling of maize crop on the rumen degradation but the information on the relationship between chemical composition and in situ rumen degradation characteristics remains scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine and describe relationships between the chemical composition and the rumen degradation characteristics of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), CP, starch and aNDFom (NDF assayed with a heat stable amylase and expressed exclusive of residual ash) of maize silages. In all, 75 maize silage samples were selected, with a broad range in chemical composition and quality parameters. The samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 72 and 336 h, using the nylon bag technique. Large range was found in the rumen degradable fractions of DM, OM, CP, starch and aNDFom because of the broad range in chemical composition and quality parameters. The new database with in situ rumen degradation characteristics of DM, OM, CP, starch and aNDFom of the maize silages was obtained under uniform experimental conditions; same cows, same incubation protocol and same chemical analysis procedures. Regression equations were developed with significant predictors (P < 0.05) describing moderate and weak relationships between the chemical composition and the washout fraction, rumen undegradable fraction, potentially rumen degradable fraction, fractional degradation rate and effective rumen degradable fraction of DM, OM, CP, starch and aNDFom. © The Animal Consortium 2014. Source


Ali M.,Wageningen University | Ali M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Cone J.W.,Wageningen University | Van Duinkerken G.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | And 6 more authors.
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences | Year: 2014

The DVE/OEB2010 system in the Netherlands uses a large database of in situ rumen incubations with grass silage and grass hay samples to derive prediction formulas to estimate the rumen degradation characteristics of a number of feed value parameters. These in situ rumen incubations were not performed for this specific purpose and the data were generated at different research institutes over more than 40 years, using different grass management and fertilization practices and using different protocols. The objectives of this study were to 1) generate a new database on the rumen degradability of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of grass silages, 2) compare this new database with the old database used in the DVE/OEB2010 system, and 3) derive regression equations using the new database to investigate the relationships between chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the grass silages. Sixty nine grass silages, with a broad range in chemical composition and quality parameters, were selected and incubated using the nylon bag technique in the rumen of three lactating Holstein Friesian cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 72 and 336 h. There was a large range in the rumen degradable fractions of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the grass silages at each rumen incubation period. The data on the rumen degradation characteristics of DM, OM, CP and NDF in the present study were determined using the same standard incubation protocol, the same cows, and the same chemical analysis procedures for all the grass silage samples. Regression analysis, using the new database, showed relationships between the washable (W) fraction, rumen undegradable (U) fraction, potentially rumen degradable (D) fraction and effective rumen degradation (ED) of DM, OM, CP and NDF, respectively, and the chemical composition of the grass silages. © 2014 Royal Netherlands Society for Agricultural Sciences. Source

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