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Curjuric I.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Curjuric I.,University of Basel | Zemp E.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Zemp E.,University of Basel | And 46 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2011

We investigated determinants of change in bronchial reactivity in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA), a population-based cohort with wide age range (29-72 yrs at follow-up). The role of sex, age, atopic status, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on percentage change in bronchial reactivity slope from the baseline value was analysed in 3,005 participants with methacholine tests in 1991 and 2002, and complete covariate data. Slope was defined as percentage decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s from its maximal value per micromole of methacholine. Bronchial hyperreactivity prevalence fell from 14.3 to 12.5% during follow-up. Baseline age was nonlinearly associated with change in reactivity slope: participants aged <50 yrs experienced a decline and those above an increase during follow-up. Atopy was not associated with change, but accentuated the age pattern (p-value for interaction=0.038). Smoking significantly increased slope by 21.2%, as did weight gain (2.7% increase per BMI unit). Compared with persistent smokers, those who ceased smoking before baseline or during follow-up experienced a significant decrease in slope (-27.7 and -23.9%, respectively). Differing, but not statistically different, age relationships and effect sizes for smoking and BMI between sexes were found. Mean bronchial reactivity increases after 50 yrs of age, possibly due to airway remodelling or ventilation-perfusion disturbances related to cumulative lifetime exposures. Copyright©ERS 2011.


Volken E.,Proclim | Bronnimann S.,ETH Zurich
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2010

Translated version from the original publication Hann. J., 1890: Zur Witterungsgeschichte von Nord-Grönland, Westküste, published in Meteorol. Z. 7, 109-115. This translation by Esther Volken and Stefan Brönnimann is intended to draw attention on important classic publications in MetZet originally written in German language. © Gebrüder Borntraeger, Stuttgart 2010.


Volken E.,Proclim | Giesche A.M.,University of Bern | Bronnimann S.,University of Bern
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2015

The microphysical processes of rain formation are discussed based on new insights. All fundamental phenomena of rain formation are explained. Important new insights arise concerning practical meteorology. © 2015 The authors.


Volken E.,Proclim | Bronnimann S.,University of Bern
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2011

This is the translated and edited version of the paper "Die Wärmezonen der Erde, nach der Dauer der heissen, gemässigten und kalten Zeit und nach der Wirkung der Wärme auf die organische Welt betrachtet" by W. Köppen, which originally appeared in 1884 in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Superscript numbers indicate original footnotes (translated at the bottom of the page), E⋯ numbers indicate editorial endnotes (at the end of the article), square brackets [] indicate editorial comments in the text. © Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart 2011.


Volken E.,Proclim | Bronnimann S.,University of Bern
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2013

This paper is the edited translation of the paper "A. Berson's Bericht über die aerologische Expedition des königlichen aeronautischen Observatoriums nach Ostafrika im Jahre 1908" (Report by A. BERSON about the aerological expedition of the Royal Aeronautic Observatory to East Africa in 1908) that was published 1910 in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift 27, 536-542. The paper, provided by R. SURING, co-editor of the journal, is a summary of a more extensive report published in the same year. © by Gebrüder Borntraeger 2013.


Volken E.,Proclim | Bronnimann S.,University of Bern
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2012

The article focuses on a device for the ventilation of the wet-bulb thermometer. It is absolutely necessary to ensure a constant ventilation of the psychrometer and to determine factor A for the selected set-up of the psychrometer by comparison with dew point instruments. For small velocities, the constant has to be determined for every psychrometer and if possible under the same conditions as the later observations. The method described becomes more complicated if barometric pressure deviates more strongly from 755 mm. Apart from that, it seems more recommendable to use a generally applicable psychrometric table instead of perpetuating an, albeit simple, calculation. Assuming that, as repeatedly proven by now, thermometers in such well-exposed metal casings exhibit negligibly small radiation errors, it can be concluded that the principle of the aspiration psychrometer can also be used in the case of smaller air velocities.


Volken E.,Proclim | Bronnimann S.,University of Bern
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2010

This is the edited English translation of the paper "Der Einfluss der Alpen auf Fallgebiete des Luftdrucks und die Entwicklung von Depressionen über dem Mittelmeer7quot; by H. Ficker, which appeared 1920 in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Superscript numbers indicate original footnotes (translated at the bottom of the page), E... numbers indicate editorial endnotes (at the end of the article), square brackets[] indicate editorial comments in the text. © Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart 2010.


Volken E.,Proclim | Bronnimann S.,University of Bern
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2014

This paper is the edited translation of a short paper by Felix Exner "Über monatlicheWitterungsanomalien auf der nördlichen Halbkugel im Winter" (On monthly weather anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere in winter), which was published in Meteorologische Zeitschrift 31, 104-109. The paper is a summary of amore extensive paper by the same author published in full in the Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. © 2015 The authors.

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