Polidoro, Italy
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Masciocchi B.,Processi Innovativi srl
Green Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

The emission of CO2 from fossil fuels is the object of an increasing worldwide attention, and although the development of new emission-poor or emission-free energy sources must be the long-term goal, for the near future the development of efficient CO2 capture technologies remains the sole strategy to control the CO2 level. A relatively recent approach to the removal of CO2 from gas streams employs ionic liquids (ILs), a broad class of compounds composed exclusively of ions that exist in the liquid state at room temperature or below. An overview on the different ILs and techniques used to this purpose is here reported. © Springer-Verlag London 2013.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.4-01;KBBE.2013.3.3-04 | Award Amount: 7.86M | Year: 2013

The project GRAIL has been build with 15 partners from 9 different countries with the aim of finalising the solutions given previously to the valorization of glycerol and transform then in valuable products in a biorefinery approach The overall concept of GRAIL project is the use, exploitation and further development of the state of the art in the field of bio-based products from glycerol and the development research-driven cluster for the use of crude glycerol for the production of high-value platforms, as well as valued end products, harnessing the biotech processes. Therefore GRAIL project has a strong business focus and its ultimate goal is to set up implantation of biorefineries in close relationship with biodiesel. This projects aim is to develop a set of technologies for converting waste glycerol from biodiesel production in a biorefinery concept to end with products of high value such as 1,3 propanediol, Fatty acid glycerol formal esters, PolyHydroxyAlkanoates (PHA), Hydrogen and Ethanol, Synthetic coatings, powder coating resins, Secondary Glycerol Amine, Biobutanol, Trehalose, Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12), -carotene, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), . The GRAIL project has designed an overall strategy based on three main pillars covering all the value chain: Pillar 1: Raw materials: Evaluation of crude glycerol and purification Pillar 2: Product development: Research and development to transform crude glycerol into other high added value such as biofuels, green chemicals and food supplements Pillar 3: Industrial feasibility aspects including economic and environmental evaluation. This pillar will take the results of GRAIL from the product development to the industrial site. To carry out that the technical feasibility will be study on a pilot plant in a Demonstration (and the results will be important to evaluate the LCA and the economic feasibility (WP6).


Piemonte V.,Biomedical University of Rome | Paola L.D.,Biomedical University of Rome | Gentile A.,Processi Innovativi S.r.l | Masciocchi B.,Processi Innovativi S.r.l | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2014

Biodiesel is the most used biofuel, but a large scale production requires processes which have an economic competitiveness and a low environmental impact. Microalgae easily provide oil to converted into biodiesel: they can be cultivated on non-arable land and, thus, contribute to CO2 mitigation. The major economic concern depends on the oil extraction process: oil extraction by ionic liquids is one of the most convenient and environmental-friendly processes for biodiesel production, promising to be the benchmark for upcoming biodiesel production in large scale plants. The novelty of this work lies in the process simulation of oil extraction using ionic liquids, implemented by Aspen HYSYS V7.3, a professional tool which is commonly used for the industrial process design, simulation, setting and control. The application of such tools could foster the large scale application of innovative technologies, largely reducing the time required to transform a concept design into an industrial productive application.. Copyright © 2014, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.2.2;SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.2.3 | Award Amount: 4.93M | Year: 2011

Sustainable decentralized hydrogen production requires development of efficient fuel-flexible units adaptable to renewable sources. CoMETHy aims at developing a compact steam reformer to convert reformable fuels (methane, bioethanol, glycerol, etc.) to pure hydrogen, adaptable to several heat sources (solar, biomass, fossil, refuse derived fuels, etc.) depending on the locally available energy mix. The following systems and components will be developed: a structured open-celled catalyst for the low-temperature (< 550C) steam reforming processes a membrane reactor to separate hydrogen from the gas mixture the use of an intermediate low-cost and environmentally friendly liquid heat transfer fluid (molten nitrates) to supply process heat from a multi fuel system. Reducing reforming temperatures below 550C by itself will significantly reduce material costs. The process involves heat collection from several energy sources and its storage as sensible heat of a molten salts mixture at 550C. This molten salt stream provides the process heat to the steam reformer, steam generator, and other units. The choice of molten salts as heat transfer fluid allows: improved compactness of the reformer; rapid and frequent start-up operations with minor material ageing concerns; improved heat recovery capability from different external sources; coupling with intermittent renewable sources like solar in the medium-long term, using efficient heat storage to provide the renewable heat when required. Methane, either from desulfurized natural gas or biogas, will be considered as a reference feed material to be converted to hydrogen. The same system is flexible also in terms of the reformable feedstock: bioethanol and/or glycerol can be converted to hydrogen following the same reforming route. The project involves RTD activities ion the single components, followed by proof-of-concept of the integrated system at the pilot scale (2 Nm2/h of hydrogen) and cost-benefit analysis.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-07-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 4.70M | Year: 2016

PEGASUS (Renewable Power Generation by Solar Particle Receiver Driven Sulphur Storage Cycle) will investigate a novel power cycle for renewable electricity production applying a solar particle receiver with a sulphur storage system for baseload operation. The proposed process combines solid particles as heat transfer fluid that can also be used for direct thermal energy storage with indirect thermochemical storage of solar energy in solid sulphur, rendering thus a solar power plant capable of round-the-clock renewable electricity production. Concepts of solar sulphur power plants will be developed and a flowsheet analysis in conjunction with a techno-economic study will be carried out to simulate the performance of the process. Prototypes of the key components (i.e. solar centrifugal particle receiver, sulphuric acid evaporator, sulphur trioxide decomposer and sulphur combustor) will be developed, constructed and operated at relevant scale. On-sun testing of the particle receiver will be carried out in the newly constructed high-flux solar simulator of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Juelich, Germany. Furthermore, an integrated operation of the receiver together with the evaporator and the decomposer will be realised in this facility to demonstrate the suitability of the concept. In addition, materials to be used simultaneously as solar heat capture, transfer and storage media as well as catalytic particles in the solar receiver, evaporator and decomposer will be developed, tested and analysed with respect to reaction kinetics and long-term stability. Moreover, system models of the key components will be implemented, validated with experimental data and applied to simulate the performance of the process components. These models will be integrated into the developed flowsheets for the above mentioned process simulations and techno-economics to predict the prospects of the technology.


Capoferri D.,Processi Innovativi Srl | Cucchiella B.,Processi Innovativi Srl | Iaquaniello G.,Tecnimont KT S.p. A. | Mangiapane A.,Tecnimont KT S.p. A. | And 2 more authors.
ChemSusChem | Year: 2011

The multistep integration of hydrogen-selective membranes into catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) technology to convert natural gas into syngas and hydrogen is reported. An open architecture for the membrane reactor is presented, in which coupling of the reaction and hydrogen separation is achieved independently and the required feed conversion is reached through a set of three CPO reactors working at 750, 750 and 920 °C, compared to 1030 °C for conventional CPO technology. Obtaining the same feed conversion at milder operating conditions translates into less natural gas consumption (and CO 2 emissions) and a reduction of variable operative costs of around 10 %. It is also discussed how this energy-efficient process architecture, which is suited particularly to small-to-medium applications, may improve the sustainability of other endothermic, reversible reactions to form hydrogen. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Barbato L.,Processi Innovativi srl | Iaquaniello G.,Processi Innovativi srl | Mangiapane A.,KT Kinetics Technology
Green Energy and Technology | Year: 2013

The basics of the process architecture to produce methanol from CO2 using renewable hydrogen are discussed and integrated within a process scheme to analyse the effects of variables such as capital investment (CI), variable operating and CO2 at site costs, electric power need for Nm3 of produced H2. These estimations are used to provide a comparison of the overall production cost with conventional hydrocarbon-based technology. © Springer-Verlag London 2013.


Chiappe C.,University of Pisa | Mezzetta A.,University of Pisa | Pomelli C.S.,University of Pisa | Iaquaniello G.,Processi Innovativi Srl. | And 2 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2016

There are still constraints to algae-sourced biodiesel commercialization owing to the high cost and energy consumption of biomass cultivation and lipid extraction. The use of "low-cost" protic ILs based on tetramethylguanidinium and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene cations (some of them generated in situ by reaction of the corresponding bases with CO2 in the presence of methanol) for lipid extraction was assessed using Scenedesmus obliquus and compared to conventional methods. High extraction yields (up to 88% compared to conventional solvents, hexane-methanol) were obtained in most of the investigated ILs using wet microalgae (85% water). Furthermore, [HDBU][MeOCO2/HCO3] and [HTMG][MeOCO2/HCO3] resulted in the direct isolation of fatty acid methyl esters ((FAMEs)-biodiesel), formed in situ through transesterification/esterification reactions. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Iaquaniello G.,KT Kinetics Technology SpA | Salladini A.,Processi Innovativi srl | Mari A.,KT Kinetics Technology SpA | Mabrouk A.A.,Suez Canal University | Fath H.E.S.,Alexandria University
Desalination | Year: 2014

Renewable energy technologies, in particular concentrating solar power (CSP), are becoming more and more interesting for powering water desalination system. Moving from a European Community funded project called MATS, Multipurpose Applications by Thermodynamics Solar, which is in an advanced phase of detailed engineering, the authors have further developed an alternative scheme by a proper integration of CSP with multi-effect distillation (MED) and reverse osmoses (RO) desalination processes. According to the proposed scheme MED is powered by the low temperature exhaust steam delivered from the back pressure steam turbine while the RO is powered by the electricity produced by the same steam turbine in addition to that generated by a conventional gas turbine integrated as a thermal backup system. The effective match of the alternative solar thermal and electricity into such hybrid power-desalination scheme is discussed in details. An economical analysis together with a developed comprehensive model is provided where power availability, water production rates and environmental benefits have been implemented. Desalination using the CSP system through such hybrid integration allows also for a continuous operation and can be an effective way to lower the total water production costs not only for large-scale plants. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Colozzi M.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A. | Cortese S.,KT Kinetics Technology S.p.A. | Barbato L.,Processi Innovativi S.r.l.
Sulphur 2013 29th International Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2013

KT - Kinetics Technology S.p.A. (KT) is developing a New Concept of Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU), utilizing a Novel Process, an innovative catalyst and a new process scheme for the treatment of all Sour Gases feedstock. The New Sulphur Recovery Configuration, with customised and tailor-made selection of operating parameters, is full in compliance with the strictest environmental emission regulation and allows achieving the goal of "zero emissions" to the atmosphere. The core-part of the Innovative SRU is the Sour Gas Selective & Oxidative Autothermal Process (Sour Gas SOAP), fully integrated with KT RAR Tail Gas Treatment (TGT) plant configuration. The distinguishing feature of the Novel Process is the production of H2 and Liquid Sulphur through Sour Gas Cracking Catalytic Partial Oxidation, instead of SO2 and Liquid Sulphur as per benchmark process technology. For the New SRU a very flexible plant scheme has been developed with the aim to be utilized as it is in all possible Industrial Application: Petroleum Refinery, Oil & Gas Field, Coal Gasification, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Complex and Chemical & Petrochemical Complex. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Novel Process, mechanism of reaction and the relevant Plant Configuration as well as the CAPEX and OPEX Analysis for a SRU installed in a Petroleum Refinery and in a Gas Field. The main results of CAPEX and OPEX Analysis is a reduction up to 30% with the final goal of "zero emissions".

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