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There is globally a large and growing market for biofuels, mainly due to environmental and safety of energy supply concerns, which is only limited by production capacity and competitive prices. Currently, the market is almost totally based on 1st generation biofuels, which have negative implications to global food resources. Therefore the rising pressure towards shifting to biomass residues and waste feedstock, is only hampered by the strong scientific and technological barriers still hindering the economic sustainability of so-called second generation biofuels production. The lead SME in the GREEN-OIL project holds a promising innovative process, based on microwave enhanced catalytic depolymerisation for the production of second generation bio-oil from feedstock materials like agricultural, industrial or municipal organic waste. However, currently the process generates bio-oil with high water content and consequently low sales price. The group of SMEs behind the GREEN-OIL project aims at developing new technology to upgrade this bio-oil for utilization in transportation (engine fuels) and for the production of lubricants. Specifically, the consortium wants to develop (1) an innovative dewatering process to reduce bio-oil water content below 2% and (2) a new fractionation process and conversion schemes for refining the dewatered bio-oil. Furthermore, the refined bio-oil will be tested as engine fuel, and the heavier fractions will be assessed as fossil crude replacement for manufacturing lubricants. Consequently, the GREEN-OIL project will strongly increase the competitiveness and economy of the participating SMEs by providing them with state-of-the-art technology for bio-oil upgrading, therefore widening the applicability of this product to new added-value markets.


Zhang N.,University of Manchester | Zhang N.,Process Integration Ltd | Smith R.,University of Manchester | Smith R.,Process Integration Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hirata K.,Mitsubishi Group | Hirata K.,Process Integration Ltd | Kakiuchi H.,AQSOA Gr.
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

The Ethylene production plant is one of the most important plants in the petrochemical industry. The process requires a huge amount of low temperature cooling but at the same time it discharges a large amount of low temperature heat. This low temperature heat source can be utilized to run an Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) for chilled water (ChW) generation, or for direct process cooling. In this paper, a process integration study is performed that applies an AHP to partially replace some of the cooling loads in the propylene refrigeration system that is a part of the cooling system in an ethylene process. This integration successfully reduces the overall compressor power of the propylene refrigerator by 10%. Other potential benefits are also reported, along with the capital investment and pay back time of the heat integration project. The potential modifications identified in this study include utilizing the chilled water (ChW) generated by AHP for both the depropanizer condenser and the charge gas chiller at the 5th stage of the charge gas compressor (CGC). If the modification of the depropanizer condenser was applied to all the ethylene plants around the world, a reduction in emissions of 4.6 Mt of CO2 could be made each year. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.60M | Year: 2010

A core part of this proposal is the development of methodologies to select and rigorously design the appropriate type of enhancement technology into energy optimisation studies to a practical level, whereby process plant engineers can plan and carry out plant energy reduction programmes in which they will have confidence. The project aims to achieve at least 20% to 30 % energy savings in the energy recovery systems from the successful completion of the project, through: (i) Enhancing our understanding of heat exchange and waste heat recovery; (ii) Combining enhanced heat transfer innovative design to achieve the synergy of separate novel technologies with focus on conventional, plate-fin and membrane exchangers. Current trends will be taken into account that whilst new types of exchangers are making an increasing impact and acceptance in the process industry, the main exchanger types are based around tubular constructions, shell and tubes and air cooled exchangers and that it is likely to remain so for many practical and pressure withstanding reasons. (iii) Proposing new materials of improved economic and environmental performance as heat transfer media (with focus on advanced heat transfer fluids). (iv) Implementing the developed technologies effectively in heat exchanger networks (HENs) through intelligent process integration and control techniques.


Hirata K.,Mitsubishi Group | Hirata K.,Process Integration Ltd
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2011

Ethylene production plant is one of the most important plants in petrochemical industry. The process requires a huge amount of low temperature cooling, so highly process integrated configurations created by applying PI (Process Integration) technology to the process was included in advanced processes. The process analysis for the advanced process was likely important for creating further new process configurations on energy saving. Accordingly, how contributed PI technology to creating a new process configuration was described here. The new network was Heat Integration between Deetanizer condenser and C2 splitter side stream liquid flow from the tray at stripping section. The energy saving benefit was 102 MUS$/y, CO2 emission reduction was 7,360 t CO2/y, and payback time was 1.42 y. Copyright © 2011, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Zheng X.,University of Manchester | Zheng X.,Process Integration Ltd | Kim J.-K.,Hanyang University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2011

A systematic methodology for the synthesis of power systems has been developed, which explores the interactions among the equipment as well as the processes in power and utility systems. Also, the optimization is able to study the integration of CO 2 capture processes with power systems for minimizing site-wide fuel consumption. Typical operating conditions for precombustion as well as postcombustion CO 2 capture have been applied to estimate energy demand within the CO 2 capture process. The power system is designed not only to meet the electricity and shaft power demand from the background process but also to satisfy the additional energy requirement incurred by CO 2 removal. With the energy integration for the overall systems, the fuel consumption could be reduced, and operating cost, minimized. A case study is presented to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed methodology for the design of energy and power systems in liquid natural gas (LNG) plants, under a carbon-constrained business environment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Ahmad M.I.,University of Peshawar | Zhang N.,University of Manchester | Jobson M.,University of Manchester | Chen L.,Process Integration Ltd
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2012

Heat exchanger networks are an integral part of chemical processes as they recover available heat and reduce utility consumption, thereby improving the overall economics of an industrial plant. This paper focuses on heat exchanger network design for multi-period operation wherein the operating conditions of a process may vary with time. A typical example is the hydrotreating process in petroleum refineries where the operators increase reactor temperature to compensate for catalyst deactivation. Superstructure based multi-period models for heat exchanger network design have been proposed previously employing deterministic optimisation algorithms, e.g. (Aaltola, 2002; Verheyen and Zhang, 2006). Stochastic optimisation algorithms have also been applied for the design of flexible heat exchanger networks recently (Ma et al., 2007, 2008). The present work develops an optimisation approach using simulated annealing for design of heat exchanger networks for multi-period operation. A comparison of the new optimisation approach with previous deterministic optimisation based design approaches is presented to illustrate the utilisation of simulated annealing in design of optimal heat exchanger network configurations for multi-period operation. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


Gough M.,CALGAVIN Ltd. | Farrokhpanah S.,Process Integration Ltd. | Bulatov I.,University of Manchester
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2013

This paper summarises the views and experience of two companies specialising in providing technical solutions for increasing the performance of heat exchangers used in the process industries. It comments on the technical opportunities available to a processor to reduce overall energy use. Emphasis is made on the use of enhancement technologies retrofitted to existing heat exchangers, a scenario subsequently illustrated in associated case studies from either company. Enhancing heat transfer in existing and new heat exchangers constitutes a retrofit approach that can address some of the problems faced in a typical heat exchanger network (HEN). The paper thus demonstrates some of the driving forces leading companies to invest in saving energy, and sets out the benefits stemming from the use of process enhancement technologies. It concludes with the view that the most financially viable means of improving HEN efficiency frequently involves addressing the operation of existing heat exchangers first (by improving their performance via various retrofit/revamping options). Only when such options have been exhausted should end-users consider the usually much more costly and operationally difficult option of purchasing and maintaining more plant. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Labanca L.,Process Integration Ltd. | Lou Y.,Process Integration Ltd.
Liaison Functions 2016 - Core Programming Area at the 2016 AIChE Spring Meeting and 12th Global Congress on Process Safety | Year: 2016

Natural gas processing plants require a series of process units to remove contaminants such as water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. These units have different process heating and cooling demands. Proper matching of the heating and cooling requirements leads to significant operating cost reductions. Excessive heat from process units can be recovered by producing steam, which may be used for satisfying heating requirements of other units or for power generation. Systematic procedures for energy optimisation in natural gas processing plants are introduced and discussed during the paper. Novel software design tools with embedded state-of-the-art process integration technologies are presented for the simulation and optimisation of natural gas processing plants. An industrial case study is presented to illustrate the benefits of performance optimisation both on the individual processes and on the overall steam system simultaneously. Eleven cost-effective projects were identified to save energy consumption in individual process units through enhanced heat recovery and process modifications. The influence and impact of the individual energy saving projects on the utility system was evaluated effectively with an integrated process / utility system model. Such a systematic and integrated energy optimisation approach significantly reduced utility consumption and improved the overall economics of the natural processing plant. Typical range of Internal Rate of Return (IRR) achieved for these energy saving projects were found to be between 25% - 180%. Copyright © American Institute of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Smart - Proof of Market | Award Amount: 24.83K | Year: 2012

The process industry is experiencing increasing challenges in delivering more sustainable, cost efficient and higher productivity. Process Integration (PIL)’s objective is to develop a new software targeted at enhancing process sustainability and performance by predicting the Reliability, Availability & Maintainability (RAM) of utilities within an industrial production/manufacturing process. Sustaining effective routine maintenance of operations and equipment is a highly important process in order to prevent potential bottleneck creation, preventable cost accumulation due to an inefficient allocation or use of resources within the production line and consequently decreasing output performance. As recognised by the TSB ICT strategy, the modelling, understanding and predicting of the behaviour of intelligent and complex systems such as process utilities is a priority challenge offering opportunities to dramatically increase process efficiencies and profitability. With the potential to reduce process life-cycle costs, the software can assist companies in decision-making processes from the initial design & planning phase of an industrial plant and for improving the process performance of existing plant operations. Manufacturing productivity is seen as the central driver for EU wealth creation, hence representing an important driver for continuous investment. The objective of the project will be to analyse the key market potential for RAM in the UK process/manufacturing industry, gaining a thorough understanding of the key market requirements.Awaiting Public Summary

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