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Bruni E.,Technical University of Denmark | Jensen A.P.,Process Development | Angelidaki I.,Technical University of Denmark
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of steam pretreatment on the biomethane potential of biofibers from digested manure. These biofibers were treated for 15 min with steam in a pressure vessel. The effect of steam treatment temperature, solids content, catalyst concentration and time of pre-soaking on the methane potential of the biofibers was determined. The highest increase of methane production from steam-treated biofibers compared to untreated biofibers was 67% and was achieved at 155 °C with addition of 2.1% w/w H 2SO 4. Also higher treatment temperatures (180 °C without addition of acid) improved the methane production, but only by 29% compared to untreated biofibers. Long pre-soaking treatment (24 h) and high acid concentration increased the risk of inhibition of the biogas process. The energy from the increased methane production after steam treatment was between 15 and 121 kW h (t WW) -1 (wet weight of untreated biofibers). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bruni E.,Technical University of Denmark | Jensen A.P.,Process Development | Angelidaki I.,Technical University of Denmark
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Organic waste such as manure is an important resource for biogas production. The biodegradability of manures is however limited because of the recalcitrant nature of the biofibers it contains. To increase the biogas potential of the biofibers in digested manure, we investigated physical treatment (milling), chemical treatment (CaO), biological treatment (enzymatic and partial aerobic microbial conversion), steam treatment with catalyst (H 3PO 4 or NaOH) and combination of biological and steam treatments (biofibers steam-treated with catalyst were treated with laccase enzyme). We obtained the highest methane yield increase through the chemical treatment that resulted in 66% higher methane production compared to untreated biofibers. The combination of steam treatment with NaOH and subsequent enzymatic treatment increased the methane yield by 34%. To choose the optimal treatment, the energy requirements relative to the energy gain as extra biogas production have to be taken into account, as well as the costs of chemicals or enzymes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Weigerstorfer G.,Process Development
Kunststoffe International | Year: 2010

Packaging plastics are entering the recycling market with increasing levels of printing ink. Erema, Austria, has developed TVEPlus that is used specially for the processing of problematical plastic wastes. The TVE technology offers numerous advantages for the processing of plastic wastes, particularly if these are contaminated with impurities that tend to form gases, or where high solids contents transported with the melt impair the degassing. Design and process engineering measures in TVEplus starts already with the entry of the processed material into the melt filter. The design of the feed and transition sections of the extruder have now been modified so that a very steep pressure gradient in the screw channel intensifies the back venting towards the extruder feed section and the cutter/compactor. A distinguishing feature compared with the former TVE is the larger distance between the melt filter and venting station on the TVEplus. Source

Bruni E.,Technical University of Denmark | Jensen A.P.,Process Development | Pedersen E.S.,Crop Production and Nature | Angelidaki I.,Technical University of Denmark
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

The methane potential of six varieties of fresh maize (whole plant) harvested at three different times and of maize silage (whole plant) in two particle size distributions was experimentally determined in batch assays. Fresh maize gave the highest methane yield/hectare at late harvest (6270 m3 CH4 (104 m2)-1). The methane yield/wet weight (WW) increased from 80 (early harvest) to 137 m3 CH4 (t WW)-1 (late harvest). Maize harvested at different times, or different varieties of maize had similar specific methane production/volatile solids content (m3 CH4 (kg VS)-1). The measured yield m3 CH4 (kg VS)-1 was 84% of the theoretical methane potential. The estimated ethanol yield was between 2.5 and 3.5 t ethanol (104 m2)-1. The energy yield was 62 and 19-22 MWh (104 m2)-1 if fresh maize (whole plant) is used for methane or ethanol production respectively. Reducing the particle size of maize silage to an average size of approximately 2 mm increased the methane yield m3 CH4 (kg VS)-1 by approximately 10%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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Acxys Technologies, France, has introduced its UL-Coat (ULC) module, which injects a precursor into plasma generated by its ULS plasma spot module, thus enabling deposition of thin films of SiOx in open air. The deposition hardware is based on the ULS design and receives an add-on part allowing precursor injection. The new system works without any moving parts, resulting in a good reliability and extreme precision in achieving the coatings. The ULC module can coat uniformly up to 400 nm thick at a rate of one cm²/s per nozzle. A multi-torch version of the ULC is currently under development to coat large surfaces at high speed. The standard module is designed for depositing non-stochiometric silicon oxide (SiOx) using an organic metal precursor. Other film compositions can be studied. The Acxys Process Development Lab offers R&D outsourcing and will tailor customer applications through a development contract. With application possible on any material, this coating can be used to build protective layers for high-value applications such as corrosion and scratch prevention for markets such as microelectronics, watchmaking, or medical equipment. This technology is easy to set up and is cost effective compared to traditional vacuum deposition solutions. The new ULC Module now enables excellent control of process parameters. The new system has no moving parts, resulting in a good reliability and extreme precision in achieving the coatings.

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