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Schett G.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Wollenhaupt J.,Klinikum Eilbek | Papp K.,Probity Medical Research | Joos R.,ZNA | And 5 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2012

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of apremilast, a novel, orally available small molecule that specifically targets phosphodiesterase 4, in the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods. This phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included the following: a 12-week treatment phase, with patients receiving placebo, apremilast 20 mg twice per day, or apremilast 40 mg once per day; a 12-week treatment-extension phase, with patients in the placebo group re-randomized to receive apremilast; and a 4-week observational phase after treatment cessation. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving the American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20% improvement (ACR20) at week 12. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), physical examinations, vital signs, laboratory parameters, and electrocardiograms. Results. Of the 204 patients with PsA who were randomized to a treatment group, 165 completed the treatment phase. At the end of the treatment phase (week 12), 43.5% of patients receiving apremilast 20 mg twice per day (P < 0.001) and 35.8% of those receiving 40 mg once per day (P = 0.002) achieved an ACR20 response, compared with 11.8% of those receiving placebo. At the end of the treatment-extension phase (week 24), >40% of patients in each group (patients receiving apremilast 20 mg twice per day, patients receiving apremilast 40 mg once per day, and patients in the placebo group re-randomized to receive apremilast) achieved the ACR20 level of improvement. Most patients in the treatment phase (84.3%) and treatmentextension phase (68.3%) reported ≥1 AE. Diarrhea, headache, nausea, fatigue, and nasopharyngitis were reported most frequently; most events were mild or moderate. No clinically relevant laboratory or electrocardiographic abnormalities were reported. Conclusion. Treatment with apremilast at a dosage of 20 mg twice per day or 40 mg once per day demonstrated efficacy in comparison with placebo and was generally well tolerated in patients with active PsA. The balance of efficacy, tolerability, and safety supports further study of apremilast in PsA. © 2012, American College of Rheumatology.


Papp K.A.,Probity Medical Research | Leonardi C.,Saint Louis University | Menter A.,Baylor University | Ortonne J.-P.,Hopital de lArchet | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of brodalumab (AMG 827), a human anti- interleukin-17-receptor monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of moderate-tosevere plaque psoriasis. METHODS:We randomly assigned patients with a score of 12 or higher on the psoriasis area-and-severity index (PASI, on which scores range from 0 to 72, with higher scores indicating more severe disease) and with 10% or more of their body-surface area affected by psoriasis to receive brodalumab (70 mg, 140 mg, or 210 mg at day 1 and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 or 280 mg monthly) or placebo. The primary end point was the percentage improvement from baseline in the PASI score at week 12. Secondary end points included improvement of at least 75% and at least 90% in the PASI score and the score on the static physician's global assessment at week 12. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients underwent randomization. At week 12, the mean percentage improvements in the PASI score were 45.0% among patients receiving 70 mg of brodalumab, 85.9% among those receiving 140 mg, 86.3% among those receiving 210 mg, 76.0% among those receiving 280 mg, and 16.0% among those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for all comparisons with placebo). An improvement of at least 75% and at least 90% in the PASI score at week 12 was seen in 77% and 72%, respectively, of the patients in the 140-mg brodalumab group and in 82% and 75%, respectively, of the patients in the 210-mg group, as compared with 0% in the placebo group (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The percentage of patients with a static physician's global assessment of clear or minimal disease was 26%, 85%, 80%, and 69% with the 70-mg, 140-mg, 210-mg, and 280-mg doses, respectively, of brodalumab, as compared with 3% with placebo (P<0.01 for all comparisons with placebo). Two cases of grade 3 neutropenia were reported in the 210-mg brodalumab group. The most commonly reported adverse events in the combined brodalumab groups were nasopharyngitis (8%), upper respiratory tract infection (8%), and injection-site erythema (6%). CONCLUSIONS:Brodalumab significantly improved plaque psoriasis in this 12-week, phase 2 study. (Funded by Amgen; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00975637.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Gordon K.,University of Chicago | Papp K.,Probity Medical Research | Poulin Y.,Center Dermatologique du Quebec Metropolitain | Gu Y.,Abbott Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background: REVEAL was a 52-week phase III trial of adalimumab therapy for moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis. Patients from REVEAL could enter an open-label extension trial to receive adalimumab for approximately 3 years of total therapy. Objective: We sought to determine long-term efficacy and safety of continuous adalimumab therapy for patients from REVEAL. Methods: Efficacy and safety over greater than 3 years of treatment were analyzed for 4 groups of patients from REVEAL. Patients who received adalimumab continuously from baseline were grouped by their responses in REVEAL: (1) greater than or equal to 75% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (PASI 75) at weeks 16 and 33 (sustained responders); (2) less than PASI 75 at week 16; and (3) greater than or equal to PASI 75 at week 16 with 50% to less than 75% improvement in PASI score at week 33. Results were also analyzed for patients who began adalimumab after 16 weeks of placebo therapy. Results: For patients with sustained PASI 75 responses during REVEAL, efficacy was generally well maintained over 3 years, with 75%/90%/100% improvement in PASI score response rates (last observation carried forward) of 83%/59%/33% after 100 weeks and 76%/50%/31% after 160 weeks of continuous therapy. Some patients with less than PASI 75 responses in REVEAL also achieved long-term PASI 75 responses. Efficacy in the placebo/adalimumab group was consistent with the ensemble of results from the other 3 groups. Adverse event rates were consistent with those during REVEAL. Limitations: The REVEAL study design prevented analyzing all patients from the adalimumab arm as one long-term cohort. Conclusion: Adalimumab efficacy was well maintained over more than 3 years of continuous therapy for patients with sustained initial PASI 75 responses. Maintenance was best at the PASI 100 level. © 2010 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.


Papp K.,Probity Medical Research | Cather J.C.,Modern Research Associates | Rosoph L.,North Bay Dermatology Center | Sofen H.,Dermatology Research Associates | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background Apremilast, a small-molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, works intracellularly to modulate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production, and doses of 20 mg twice daily have shown efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in a 12-week phase 2 study. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of different doses of apremilast in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Methods In this phase 2b, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study, patients (aged =18 years) with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive oral placebo or apremilast 10, 20, or 30 mg twice daily at 35 US and Canadian sites between Sept 24, 2008, and Oct 21, 2009. At week 16, patients in the placebo group were assigned apremilast 20 or 30 mg twice daily until week 24. Randomisation was generated with a permuted-block randomisation list via interactive voice response system. For the first 16 weeks, treatment assignment was concealed from both investigators and participants. During weeks 16-24, investigators and participants all knew that treatment was active, but the dose was concealed. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving at least 75% reduction from baseline psoriasis area and severity index (PASI-75) at week 16. Analyses were by intention to treat; missing values were imputed by last-observation-carried-forward. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00773734. Findings 89 patients were randomly assigned apremilast 10 mg, 87 apremilast 20 mg, and 88 apremilast 30 mg twice daily; 88 were assigned placebo. At week 16, PASI-75 was achieved in five patients (6%) assigned placebo, ten (11%) assigned apremilast 10 mg, 25 (29%) assigned 20 mg, and 36 (41%) assigned 30 mg. Apremilast 10 mg did not differ significantly from placebo in achievement of the endpoint (odds ratio 2.10; 95% CI 0.69-6.42); for both apremilast 20 mg (6.69; 2.43-18.5; p<0.0001) and apremilast 30 mg (11.5; 4.24-31.2; p<0.0001), the differences from placebo were significant. Most adverse events (96%) were mild or moderate; at least 5% of patients had nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, nasopharyngitis, headache, arthralgia (placebo), gastroenteritis, or dyspepsia. Eight serious adverse events occurred (three each, placebo and apremilast 20 mg; two, apremilast 30 mg); none were judged to be related to apremilast. Apremilast had no apparent effect on the results of haematological, urinalysis, immunological or inflammation, serum chemistry, or electrocardiographic tests. Interpretation Apremilast, given orally at 20 or 30 mg twice daily, seems to be efficacious, safe, and tolerable for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Our results support continuing, longer-term studies. Funding Celgene Corporation.


Langley R.G.,Dalhousie University | Elewski B.E.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Lebwohl M.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Reich K.,University of Gottingen | And 18 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-17A is considered to be central to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We evaluated secukinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. METHODS: In two phase 3, double-blind, 52-week trials, ERASURE (Efficacy of Response and Safety of Two Fixed Secukinumab Regimens in Psoriasis) and FIXTURE (Full Year Investigative Examination of Secukinumab vs. Etanercept Using Two Dosing Regimens to Determine Efficacy in Psoriasis), we randomly assigned 738 patients (in the ERASURE study) and 1306 patients (in the FIXTURE study) to subcutaneous secukinumab at a dose of 300 mg or 150 mg (administered once weekly for 5 weeks, then every 4 weeks), placebo, or (in the FIXTURE study only) etanercept at a dose of 50 mg (administered twice weekly for 12 weeks, then once weekly). The objective of each study was to show the superiority of secukinumab over placebo at week 12 with respect to the proportion of patients who had a reduction of 75% or more from baseline in the psoriasis area-and-severity index score (PASI 75) and a score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) on a 5-point modified investigator's global assessment (coprimary end points). RESULTS: The proportion of patients who met the criterion for PASI 75 at week 12 was higher with each secukinumab dose than with placebo or etanercept: in the ERASURE study, the rates were 81.6% with 300 mg of secukinumab, 71.6% with 150 mg of secukinumab, and 4.5% with placebo; in the FIXTURE study, the rates were 77.1% with 300 mg of secukinumab, 67.0% with 150 mg of secukinumab, 44.0% with etanercept, and 4.9% with placebo (P<0.001 for each secukinumab dose vs. comparators). The proportion of patients with a response of 0 or 1 on the modified investigator's global assessment at week 12 was higher with each secukinumab dose than with placebo or etanercept: in the ERASURE study, the rates were 65.3% with 300 mg of secukinumab, 51.2% with 150 mg of secukinumab, and 2.4% with placebo; in the FIXTURE study, the rates were 62.5% with 300 mg of secukinumab, 51.1% with 150 mg of secukinumab, 27.2% with etanercept, and 2.8% with placebo (P<0.001 for each secukinumab dose vs. comparators). The rates of infection were higher with secukinumab than with placebo in both studies and were similar to those with etanercept. CONCLUSIONS: Secukinumab was effective for psoriasis in two randomized trials, validating interleukin-17A as a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Haraoui B.,Rheumatology | Liu P.P.,11 Health | Papp K.A.,Probity Medical Research
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2012

The role of traditional risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease has been well studied. However, the relationship between chronic inflammatory conditions and cardiovascular risk has only recently been appreciated. Expression of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines is common to the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory diseases and may suggest that systemic inflammation independently contributes to elevated risk. This article examines the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in several of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases and summarizes currently available data to discern whether this risk is largely due to the presence of co-existing traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease or the effect of increased systemic inflammation. Evidence is summarized to show which therapies may positively or negatively impact cardiovascular risk. Evidence is discussed in context of practical patient management tools, appropriate treatment based on risk, and treatment targets for high-risk patients. Overall, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at an often underestimated increase in cardiovascular risk and require individualized therapy and specific patient management strategies to address the disease process, cardiovascular risk factors, and comorbidities. © 2012 Clinical Rheumatology.


Reich K.,Dermatologikum Hamburg | Reich K.,University of Gottingen | Langley R.G.,Dalhousie University | Papp K.A.,Probity Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Briakinumab is a monoclonal antibody against the p40 molecule shared by interleukin- 12 and interleukin-23, which is overexpressed in psoriatic skin lesions. We assessed the efficacy and safety of briakinumab as compared with methotrexate in patients with psoriasis. METHODS: In this 52-week trial, we randomly assigned 317 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis to briakinumab, at a dose of 200 mg at weeks 0 and 4 and 100 mg at week 8 and every 4 weeks thereafter (154 patients), or methotrexate, at a dose of 5 to 25 mg weekly (163 patients). The primary end points were the percentages of patients with at least 75% improvement in the score on the psoriasis area-and-severity index (PASI) at weeks 24 and 52 and a score on the physician's global assessment of 0 (clear; i.e., no apparent disease) or 1 (minimal disease) at weeks 24 and 52. A total of 248 patients were enrolled in an ongoing 160-week open-label continuation study. RESULTS:At week 24, a total of 81.8% of the patients in the briakinumab group versus 39.9% in the methotrexate group had at least 75% improvement in the PASI score, and 80.5% versus 34.4% had a score of 0 or 1 on the physician's global assessment. The corresponding percentages at week 52 were 66.2% versus 23.9% with at least a 75% improvement in the PASI score and 63.0% versus 20.2% with a score of 0 or 1 on the physician's global assessment (P<0.001 for all comparisons). During the 52-week study, serious adverse events occurred in 9.1% of the patients in the briakinumab group (12.9 events per 100 patient-years) and in 6.1% in the methotrexate group (10.6 events per 100 patient-years). Serious infections occurred in 2.6% of the patients in the briakinumab group (4.1 events per 100 patient-years) and in 1.8% in the methotrexate group (2.7 events per 100 patient-years); cancers occurred in 1.9% (2.0 events per 100 patient-years) versus 0%. CONCLUSIONS:Briakinumab showed higher efficacy than methotrexate in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Serious infections and cancers occurred more frequently with briakinumab, but the differences were not significant. (Funded by Abbott Laboratories; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00679731.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Papp K.A.,Probity Medical Research | Kaufmann R.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Thaci D.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Hu C.,Celgene | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013

Background Apremilast, a small molecule specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, works intracellularly to modulate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production. Objective Assess apremilast efficacy and safety in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Methods Phase II, 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-comparison study of 259 subjects randomized 1: 1: 1 to placebo, apremilast 20 mg QD or apremilast 20 mg BID. Results More subjects receiving apremilast 20 mg BID achieved ≥ 75% reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI-75) vs. placebo (24.4% vs. 10.3%; P = 0.023). A similar proportion of subjects receiving apremilast 20 mg QD and placebo achieved PASI-75 at week 12 [9/87 (10.3%, each group)]. Mean per cent reduction in PASI from baseline was 17.4% for placebo, 30.3% for apremilast 20 mg QD (P = 0.021 vs. placebo) and 52.1% for apremilast 20 mg BID (P < 0.001). Apremilast 20 mg BID significantly decreased mean body surface area involvement vs. placebo (30.8% vs. 3.2%; P < 0.001). The most common adverse events were headache, nasopharyngitis, diarrhoea and nausea. Most events (> 90%) were mild to moderate and did not lead to study discontinuation. Serious adverse events occurred in four placebo subjects (panic attack, hospitalization for rehabilitation, hospitalization for alcoholism, worsening psoriasis), one receiving apremilast 20 mg QD (knee surgery) and in one receiving apremilast 20 mg BID (worsening psoriasis). The panic attack was considered treatment-related; both cases of worsening psoriasis occurred after medication discontinuation. No deaths or opportunistic infections were reported. Conclusion Apremilast 20 mg BID for 12 weeks was effective and well tolerated in subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.


Griffiths C.E.M.,University of Manchester | Reich K.,Dermatologikum Hamburg and SCIderm Research Institute | Lebwohl M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Van De Kerkhof P.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Ixekizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody against the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17A. We report two studies of ixekizumab compared with placebo or etanercept to assess the safety and efficacy of specifically targeting interleukin 17A in patients with widespread moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Methods In two prospective, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3 studies (UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3), eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had a confirmed diagnosis of chronic plaque psoriasis at least 6 months before baseline (randomisation), 10% or greater body-surface area involvement at both screening and baseline visits, at least a moderate clinical severity as measured by a static physician global assessment (sPGA) score of 3 or more, and a psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score of 12. Participants were randomly assigned (1:2:2:2) by computer-generated random sequence with an interactive voice response system to receive subcutaneous placebo, etanercept (50 mg twice weekly), or one injection of 80 mg ixekizumab every 2 weeks, or every 4 weeks after a 160 mg starting dose. Blinding was maintained with a double-dummy design. Coprimary efficacy endpoints were proportions of patients achieving sPGA score 0 or 1 and 75% or greater improvement in PASI at week 12. Analysis was by intention to treat. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01597245 and NCT01646177. Findings Between May 30, 2012, and Dec 30, 2013, 1224 patients in UNCOVER-2 were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous placebo (n=168), etanercept (n=358), or ixekizumab every 2 weeks (n=351) or every 4 weeks (n=347); between Aug 11, 2012, and Feb 27, 2014, 1346 patients in UNCOVER-3 were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=193), etanercept (n=382), ixekizumab every 2 weeks (n=385), or ixekizumab every 4 weeks (n=386). At week 12, both primary endpoints were met in both studies. For UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3 respectively, in the ixekizumab every 2 weeks group, PASI 75 was achieved by 315 (response rate 89·7%; [effect size 87·4% (97·5% CI 82·9-91·8) vs placebo; 48·1% (41·2-55·0) vs etanercept]) and 336 (87·3%; [80·0% (74·4-85·7) vs placebo; 33·9% (27·0-40·7) vs etanercept]) patients; in the ixekizumab every 4 weeks group, by 269 (77·5%; [75·1% (69·5-80·8) vs placebo; 35·9% (28·2-43·6) vs etanercept]) and 325 (84·2%; [76·9% (71·0-82·8) vs placebo; 30·8% (23·7-37·9) vs etanercept]) patients; in the placebo group, by four (2·4%) and 14 (7·3%) patients; and in the etanercept group by 149 (41·6%) and 204 (53·4%) patients (all p<0·0001 vs placebo or etanercept). In the ixekizumab every 2 weeks group, sPGA 0/1 was achieved by 292 (response rate 83·2%; [effect size 80·8% (97·5% CI 75·6-86·0) vs placebo; 47·2% (39·9-54·4) vs etanercept]) and 310 (80·5%; [73·8% (67·7-79·9) vs placebo; 38·9% (31·7-46·1) vs etanercept]) patients; in the ixekizumab every 4 weeks group by 253 (72·9%; [70·5% (64·6-76·5) vs placebo; 36·9% (29·1-44·7) vs etanercept]) and 291 (75·4%; [68·7% (62·3-75·0) vs placebo; 33·8% (26·3-41·3) vs etanercept]) patients; in the placebo group by four (2·4%) and 13 (6·7%) patients; and in the etanercept group by 129 (36·0%) and 159 (41·6%) patients (all p<0·0001 vs placebo or etanercept). In combined studies, serious adverse events were reported in 14 (1·9%) of 734 patients given ixekizumab every 2 weeks, 14 (1·9%) of 729 given ixekizumab every 4 weeks, seven (1·9%) of 360 given placebo, and 14 (1·9%) of 739 given etanercept; no deaths were noted. Interpretation Both ixekizumab dose regimens had greater efficacy than placebo and etanercept over 12 weeks in two independent studies. These studies show that selectively neutralising interleukin 17A with a high affinity antibody potentially gives patients with psoriasis a new and effective biological therapy option. Funding Eli Lilly and Co. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Keystone E.C.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Papp K.A.,Probity Medical Research | Wobeser W.,Queen's University
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is well recognized as an adverse event associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) therapy. The strengths and weaknesses of current techniques for detecting LTBI in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis have not been fully examined. T cell hyporesponsiveness due to immunosuppression caused by illness or drugs, referred to as anergy, may produce false-negative tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) results. The literature suggests that anergy may influence screening performance of TST and IGRA tests in candidates for anti-TNF-α therapy. Conversely, the potential for false-positive TST and IGRA results must be considered, as treatment for LTBI may be associated with significant morbidity. This review examines the reliability issues related to LTBI diagnostic testing and provides practical direction to help prevent LTBI reactivation and facilitate successful anti-TNF-α treatment. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2011. All rights reserved.

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