Stanford in the Vale, United Kingdom
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We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies S. g. griseicollis and S. g. gilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. © 2015, ZooKeys. All rights reserved.


Donegan T.M.,ProAves Foundation | Avendano J.E.,University of the Plains | Avendano J.E.,University of Los Andes, Colombia
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2015

Molecular work has revealed that Speckled Hummingbirds Adelomyia melanogenys in the East Andes of dpto. Santander, Colombia, represent a distinct lineage not previously recognised taxonomically. Most specimens from this region differ from others taken in the East Andes by their more extensively rufous and speckled posterior underparts. Sound-recordings and biometrics showed broad overlap for all variables in both populations. Statistically significant but nondiagnosable differences exist in the number of notes in trills of songs, speed of calls and bill length. The type of Adelomyia melanogenys (Fraser 1840) is a 'Bogotá' specimen similar to birds from dpto. Cundinamarca, Colombia. Trochilus sabinae Bourcier & Mulsant, 1846, is also based on a 'Colombia' specimen. A possible type was identified that resembles the Santander population in its underparts. Adelomyia simplex Boucard, 1893, is based on a leucistic 'Bogotá' specimen more consistent with the Cundinamarca population than others. If the Santander population is recognised taxonomically, it is suggested to clarify the type locality for sabinae as the west slope of the East Andes in Santander or Boyacá, but molecular work is needed to confirm this. A. in. inomata in the southern Andes has a faster call and distinctive plumage, and perhaps merits species rank. © 2015 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2015 British Ornithologists' Club.


Donegan T.M.,ProAves Foundation
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2016

The name Columba domestica Linnaeus, 1758, is senior to Columba livia J. F. Gmelin, 1789, but both names apply to the same biological species, Rock Dove or Feral Pigeon, which is widely known as C. livia. The type series of livia is mixed, including specimens of Stock Dove C. oenas, wild Rock Dove, various domestic pigeon breeds and two other pigeon species that are not congeners. In the absence of a plate unambiguously depicting a wild bird being cited in the original description, a neotype for livia is designated based on a Fair Isle (Scotland) specimen. The name domestica is based on specimens of the 'runt' breed, originally illustrated by Aldrovandi (1600) and copied by Willughby (1678) and a female domestic specimen studied but not illustrated by the latter. The name C. oenas Linnaeus, 1758, is also based on a mixed series, including at least one Feral Pigeon. The individual illustrated in one of Aldrovandi's (1600) oenas plates is designated as a lectotype, type locality Bologna, Italy. The names Columba gutturosa Linnaeus, 1758, and Columba cucullata Linnaeus, 1758, cannot be suppressed given their limited usage. The issue of priority between livia and domestica, and between both of them and gutturosa and cucullata, requires ICZN attention. Other names introduced by Linnaeus (1758) or Gmelin (1789) based on domestic breeds are considered invalid, subject to implicit first reviser actions or nomina oblita with respect to livia and domestica. © 2016 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2016 British Ornithologists' Club.


Donegan T.M.,ProAves Foundation
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2014

Plumage and vocal variation were studied in a widespread New World passerine, Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus. Two parallel north-south clines or step-clines in underparts coloration occur in the Central and East Andes of Colombia, with yellower specimens at northern latitudes in both ranges. In the East Andes, the cline is reversed further north, where paler-bellied birds occur. Most West Andes and west-slope specimens differ from those in the Central and East Andes in their more olivaceous flanks (although some show underparts similar to Central Andes specimens). B. t. daedalus can be restricted to the West Andes based on '75%' subspecies concepts but not those requiring diagnosability. Andean B. tristriatus possess at least three vocalisation types: (i) a rising song starting with a trill and ending in scratchy notes; (ii) a slow song comprising jumbled notes; and (iii) calls of repeated, simple, single notes. West and Central Andes populations are vocally similar and differ non-diagnosably from East Andes populations in the speed of the trill in rising songs. Specimens from SerranÍa de San Lucas, Colombia, are morphologically similar to northern Central Andes birds, but the rising song has a shorter introductory trill and neither song attains such low minimum acoustic frequencies. Santa Marta Warbler B. basilicus has very different songs comprising low-pitched, slow, incessant, complex notes, is mildly differentiated in biometrics and strongly differentiated in plumage from B. tristriatus, supporting its current specific treatment. The rising song of Three-banded Warbler B. trifasciatus lacks an initial trill and its slow song has a different note shape to B. tristriatus but further research in a potential contact zone in southern Ecuador is required. Within B. tristriatus, northernmost populations assigned to melanotis and chitrensis in Costa Rica and western Panama give only the 'slow song' type, but these are delivered diagnosably faster than in any other population. B. t. tacarcunae from eastern Panama and north-western Colombia has a different song, comprising an incessant, long jumble of notes interspersed with short churrs. Populations either side of the Huancabamba depression in Peru show only minor differences in voice, but those either side of the ApurÍmac show significant but non-diagnosable differences in song speed. Bolivian populations have strikingly different rising songs that are quantitatively diagnosable. The rising song of Venezuelan Three-striped Warblers recalls that of B. trifasciatus in its slow delivery. Differences in vocal repertoire and quantitative measures support species rank for Costa Rican Warbler B. melanotis and Tacarcuna Warbler B. tacarcunae. Bolivian Warbler B. punctipectus is also a candidate for species rank. © 2014 British Ornithologists' Club.


Donegan T.M.,ProAves Foundation | Avendano J.E.,University of the Plains
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2013

Upper Magdalena Tapaculo Scytalopus rodriguezi was described (in 2005) as restricted to the headwaters of the Magdalena Valley in dpto. Huila, Colombia. Here we describe a new but related taxon from the Serranía de los Yariguies, dpto. Santander, Colombia, c.580 km to the north, which differs in its darker dorsal coloration, shorter tail, smaller body, lower mass and lower pitched song with reduced frequency bandwidth in its notes.


Donegan T.M.,ProAves Foundation
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2012

Morphology, biometrics and vocals indicate that the population of Immaculate Antbird Myrmeciza immaculata in Colombia's Central Andes is differentiated from other populations. A new subspecies described here differs from nominate immaculata in the underparts coloration of females, reduced feathering on the forehead in adult males and a generally slower song with different note shape. Subspecies rank is assigned because differences between the new taxon and allopatric populations do not attain those between sympatric or parapatric Myrmeciza. Available data also support splitting Immaculate Antbird into two species, under any modern version of the Biological Species Concept. Western Immaculate (or Zeledon's) Antbird M. zeledoni inhabits foothills and mountains from Costa Rica southwards, and includes M. z. macrorhyncha of southern Panama to Ecuador. (Andean) Immaculate Antbird M. immaculata occurs in the Central, East, Perijá and Mérida Andes of Colombia and Venezuela (and includes the new subspecies). Vocal differences exceed those between parapatric Goeldi's Antbird M. goeldii and White-shouldered Antbird M. melanoceps and those between sympatric thamnophilids in other genera. Subspecies macrorhyncha and the new subspecies can be considered phylogenetic species within zeledoni and immaculata respectively. M. i. affinis of the Mérida Andes is weakly differentiated from M. i. immaculata. None of the features used to diagnose brunnea (of the Perijá Mountains) is supported. The name ellisiana is a junior synonym of nominate immaculata. The name zeledoni Ridgway, 1909, is selected to have priority over berlepschi Ridgway, 1909 (for which macrorhyncha is a replacement name) pursuant to an explicit First Reviser action, to stabilise the name of a split M. zeledoni. © 2012 The Authors; Journal compilation.


Bird inventories of the isolated Serranía de San Lucas, northern Colombia, yielded range extensions for several foothill or highland birds of the adjacent Central Andes: Pavonine Cuckoo Dromococcyx pavoninus, Lyre-tailed Nightjar Uropsalis lyra, White-tipped Sicklebill Eutoxeres aquila, Masked Trogon Trogon personatus, Golden-headed Quetzal Pharomachrus auriceps, Smoky-brown Woodpecker Picoidesfumigatus, Crimson-mantled Woodpecker Colaptes rivolii, Redfaced Spinetail Cranioleuca erythrops, Western Woodhaunter Hyloclistes virgatus, Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufum, Spotted Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus erythropygius, Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor, White-crowned Tapaculo Scytalopus atratus, Rufous-browed Tyrannulet Phylloscartes superciliaris, Ornate Flycatcher Myiotriccus ornatus, White-winged Becard Pachyramphus polychopterus, Brown-capped Vireo Vireo leucophrys, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus aurantiirostris, Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis, Golden Tanager Tangara arthus and Yellow-throated Bush Tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis. M. schisticolor and S. atratus show small differences from Central Andes populations and require further research. Range extensions for lowland species (some based on older specimens) include Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus, Scaled Dove Scardafella squammata, Vermiculated Screech Owl Megascops 'guatemalae' centralis, Central American Pygmy Owl Glaucidiutn griseiceps, Spot-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis maculicaudus, Green-and-rufous Kingfisher Chloroceryle inda, Sooty Grassquit Tiaris fulighwsus and Black-faced Grassquit T. bicolor. The threatened Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia castaneiventris and Recurve-billed Bushbird Clytoctantes alixii (both last collected in the 1940s in the region) were recorded. Tens of new elevational records for typically lowland species were made. San Lucas woodnymphs are intermediate between Thalurania fannyi and T. colombica, raising questions as to whether two species are involved. Nominate Lineated Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla subalaris (of the West Andes) occurs in the northern Central Andes including San Lucas. Various highland species recorded at similar elevations in the Central Andes are apparently absent, perhaps due to lower humidity, island effects and ecological release of lowland species. The highest elevations of San Lucas remain unknown but occupy very small areas. Further work will doubtless yield additional new records, but is complicated by security issues and land-use conflicts. Anti-personnel landmines do not provide a viable 'defence' against deforestation in the long term due to habitat disturbance associated with their clearance. © 2012 British Ornithologists' Club.


We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopusgriseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopusgriseicollisgriseicollis and Scytalopusgriseicollisgilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and pramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.

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