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Tabatabaei Z.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Gliha B.P.,U.S. Army | Keener D.I.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper discusses the development and testing of long carbon fibers-fibers 75 mm long or longer-to improve the resistance of reinforced concrete to dynamic loading, such as blasts and impact. In the past, attempts to use long fibers in concrete have failed as a result of both balling (agglomeration) and poor dispersion of the fibers. In the present study, two types of long carbon fibers were developed and optimized for their use in reinforced concrete. The resulting long carbon fiber-reinforced concrete (LCFRC) was subsequently evaluated through impact and blast testing. Full-scale blast testing revealed that these fibers significantly increased the resistance of concrete spalling. In terms of the amount of material lost during the blast, LCFRC panels outperformed nonfiber concrete panels by nearly a factor of 10. This significant reduction in weight loss for the LCFRC panels translates into a substantial decrease in harmful, flying debris in a blast event, and a corresponding reduction in blast lethality. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Tabatabaei Z.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Keener D.I.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings | Gliha B.P.,Missouri University of Science and Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

The addition of long carbon fibers (fibers more than 10. mm in length) to traditional reinforced concrete is proposed as a method to improve the impact spalling resistance of concrete. A series of experimental tests were conducted to compare the impact resistance of plain concrete (PC), steel reinforced concrete, and four different types of long carbon fiber reinforced concrete (LCFRC) panels. The plain and conventional steel reinforced concrete panels served as control specimens. Of the four types of long carbon fibers tested in this study, the first fiber type consisted of an epoxy-impregnated, bidirectional weave (Type A), while the remaining types consisted of fiber tow with three different variations of a polypropylene support system (Type B). To determine the properties and performance of the LCFRC, experimental testing included a drop weight impact test of the panels as well as a standard ASTM test method for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete. The results from each test in terms of impact energy, time histories of impact load and deflection, strain energy, failure crack pattern, and flexural properties were then compared to one another. This comparison indicated that adding long carbon fibers to concrete increases the post-cracking behavior of the concrete and decreases fragmentation during an impact test. Of the four fibers tested, Fiber Type B3 exhibited the highest performance, absorbing more energy during impact. This result is most likely related to the unique shape of this type of fiber in comparison to the others, which allowed more extensive wetting of the fiber with cement paste and thus improved bond to the cementitious matrix. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Tang F.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Chen G.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Brow R.K.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Koenigstein M.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

In this study, the corrosion process of enamel-coated deformed rebar completely immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated over a period of 84 days by EIS testing. Three types of enamel coating were investigated: pure enamel, 50/50 enamel coating, and double enamel. Surface condition of the enamel coatings that were intentionally damaged prior to corrosion tests was visually examined at different immersion times. After 84 days of testing, the damaged coating areas were characterized by SEM, and the corrosion products on and adjacent to the damaged areas were collected and analyzed by XRD. Corrosion initiated at the damaged locations with no undercutting of the coating observed. The 50/50 enamel coating had the least corrosion resistance, due to its interconnected pore structure, and prior damage drastically reduced the corrosion resistance of pure and double enamel coated rebar. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Tabatabaei Z.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Baird J.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Gliha B.P.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Keener D.I.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2013

The addition of long carbon fibers to traditional reinforced concrete is proposed as a method to improve the blast spalling resistance of concrete. A series of tests was conducted to compare the blast resistance of panels constructed with either conventional reinforced concrete (RC) or long carbon fiber-reinforced concrete (LCFRC). Conventional reinforced concrete panels were tested as control specimens. Pressure sensors measured both the free-field incident pressure and the reflected pressure for each panel. Furthermore, a finite element model was created in LS-DYNA to replicate both a control panel and an LCFRC panel to observe whether or not the models could predict the observed damage. Each of the LCFRC panels exhibited less material loss and less surface damage than the control panels. The addition of long carbon fibers significantly increased the concrete's blast resistance and significantly reduced the degree of cracking associated with the concrete panels. The results were also compared to the existing damage level chart (UFC 3-340-02). A comparison of the results indicates that the finite element modeling approach adopted in this study provides an adequate representation of both RC and LCFRC experimental responses. The results can be used in blast modeling with a reasonable degree of accuracy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wu C.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Chen G.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Brow R.K.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Koenigstein M.L.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

In this paper, the bond strength between vitreous enamel coated rebar and concrete is characterized through testing of 96 pullout cylinder specimens. Key parameters investigated include rebar diameter, coating condition, confinement condition, concrete cover-to-rebar diameter ratio, and concrete strength. The unconfined and confined cylinders fail in concrete splitting with crushing zones distributed at rib fronts and concrete splitting plus shearing off, respectively. The enamel coating reduces the crushing angle and increases the crushing length of concrete. Within the test ranges of various parameters, the overall increase in bond strength of the enamel coated rebar in normal concrete is approximately 15%. Confinement or reduction of rebar size can increase the effect of enamel coating on the bond strength by 2-4%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tang F.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Chen G.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Brow R.K.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Koenigstein M.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

Corrosion behavior of enamel-coated reinforcing steel bars in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is evaluated by open-circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization testing. Three types of enamel coating are investigated: a pure enamel coating, a mixed enamel coating that consists of 50% pure enamel and 50% calcium silicate by weight, and a double enamel coating that has an inner pure enamel layer and an outer 50/50 enamel layer. The coatings are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. SEM images reveal that all three enamel coatings have a porous structure. The pores in the pure and double enamel are disconnected, while those in the mixed enamel are interconnected. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that both pure and double enamel coatings can significantly improve corrosion resistance, while the mixed enamel coating offers very little protection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tang F.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Chen G.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Brow R.K.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Koenigstein M.L.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2013

The corrosion performance of smooth steel rebar coated with pure enamel, mixed enamel, and double enamel, and embedded in mortar cylinders were quantified in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using open-circuit potential (OCP), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) tests over a period of 173 days. The mixed enamel was prepared by adding calcium silicate contained in cement into the pure enamel. The double enamel consisted of an inner pure enamel layer and an outer mixed enamel layer. Results indicated that after 27 days of immersion, corrosion initiated and was rapidly developed in uncoated and the mixed enamel coated specimens. Although the OCP indicated a high likelihood of corrosion initiation, the pure enamel and double enamel coated rebar had significantly lower corrosion current densities, and thus remained in passivity throughout the entire test period. This behavior was further verified by the forensic study and EIS results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wu C.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Chen G.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Brow R.K.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Koenigstein M.L.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents an experimental study of vitreous enamel coating effects on the bond strength between deformed rebar and normal strength concrete. A total of 24 beam splice beam specimens were tested under 4-point loading with four parameters investigated: rebar size, lap splice length, coating and confinement conditions. As the splice length increases, the ratio of bond strength between coated rebar and black rebar was found to increase from 1.0 to a maximum value of 1.44 and decrease to 1.0. The maximum bond strength ratio corresponds to a splice length over rebar diameter ratio of 20-35 when the maximum elastic stress is developed in enamel-coated rebar. For a splice length over rebar diameter ratio of less than 20, an average of 10% bond strength increase was observed due to confinement provided by transverse stirrups. The concrete beams reinforced with enamel-coated rebar have a greater number of smaller flexural cracks than those containing black rebar since the enamel coated rebar can more effectively receives stress from the concrete.


Yan D.,Zhejiang University | Reis S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Tao X.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Chen G.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

In this study, 84 mortar cylinders, each with one steel rod embedded at its center, were tested in tension to characterize the bonding strength at the steel/mortar interface. The effects of different enamel coatings on the steel rods and the mortar curing time were investigated. The bond strength between a smooth steel rod and mortar can be increased by as much as seven times when the rod is coated with a mixture of 50% (by weight) enamel and 50% calcium silicate (CS) particles. This increase in bond strength is due to the increased surface roughness of the coating and chemical bonding of the embedded CS particles to the surrounding mortar. Uncoated smooth and roughened steel rods and rods coated with pure enamel could be pulled cleanly out of the mortar cylinders, whereas the cylinders split when rods coated with reactive enamels containing CS particles were removed. The failure loads of rods coated with reactive enamels increase with concrete aging time, with a maximum load reached up to at least 97 days, whereas the failure loads of uncoated rods decreased slightly after 28 days of curing. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tang F.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Chen G.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Brow R.K.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Volz J.S.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Koenigstein M.L.,Pro Perma Engineered Coatings
Corrosion Science | Year: 2012

Corrosion resistances of steel rebar with different enamel coatings, and with fusion bonded epoxy coatings were investigated in 3.5. wt.% NaCl solution by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity to damage of the coatings was characterized and it was found that the pure and double enamel coatings can protect the steel rebar better than the mixed enamel coating due to their denser microstructures with isolated pores. Damaged enamel coating was locally corroded, whereas corrosion at a defect often undercut the epoxy coating. The intact epoxy coating offered better corrosion protection than the enamel coatings. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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