Private University of the North
Trujillo, Peru

Northern Private University is a private university located in Trujillo, Peru. It was established by Congress Law N° 26275, on November the 5th, 1993. The academic activities in the University began on August the 15th, 1994. The Northern Private University has two campuses in Trujillo and Cajamarca respectively. Today, the University has about 4,000 students enrolled in undergraduate study programs, along with the undergraduate programs, the Northern Private University offers postgraduate programs as well. Since September 15, 2007, it has become a member of Laureate International Universities. Wikipedia.

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Castro W.,Private University of the North | Oblitas J.,Private University of the North | Chuquizuta T.,University of Mendoza | Avila-George H.,CICESE
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2017

Consumption of bread and the demands concerning its quality features, being one of them its appearance, have been experiencing rapid growth. Thus, the standardization of its production aiming to keep its quality, applying new methods. The objective of this research was to develop a method to optimize the bread-making processes based on the acceptability of its crust color. For this effect, bread was experimentally produced using a Box-Behnken experimental design with three factors (sugar-flour relation, Baking temperature and Baking time) and three answer variables (L*, a*, b* = parameters of CIELab color space); determination of color, by means of the acquisition, pre-processing, and analysis of images of bread samples until getting the color expressed in CIELab coordinates; an analysis of sensorial acceptance was made determining the L*, a*, and b* with the highest acceptance by consumers; finally, the optimization of the production process was made based on the L*, a*, and b* parameters, getting the optimal production parameters. The results show that by using the proposed method, it is possible to correlate the parameters of CIELab color space and the acceptance of the final consumer aiming to optimize bread making processes, it means getting bread with crust color of maximum acceptability. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Sanchez-Gonzalez J.A.,Private University of the North | Oblitas-Cruz J.F.,Private University of the North
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria | Year: 2017

The objective of this work was to evaluate the capability of artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict shelf life and the acidity on vacuum packed fresh cheese. First, cheese samples, of 200 g per unit, were prepared; then these samples were stored for 2 to 4 days at temperatures of 4, 10 and 16 ° C and relative humidity of 67.5%. Throughout the storage, the acidity (AC) and sensorial acceptability were determined; this acceptability was used to determine the Shelf life time (SLT) by modified Weibull sensory risk method. A set of artificial neural networks (ANN) was created and trained; temperatures (T), maturation time (M) and failure possibility (F(x)) were used as inputs and SLT and AC as outputs. From this set, the networks with the lowest mean squared error (MSE) and best fit (R2) were selected. These networks showed correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9996 and 0.6897 for SLT and AC respectively, and good accuracy compared with regression models. It is shown that the ANN can be used to adequately model the SLT and, to a lesser degree, the AC of vacuum-packed fresh cheeses.

Rosenberg N.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Rosenberg N.E.,Private University of the North | Pilcher C.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Busch M.P.,University of California at San Francisco | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2015

Purpose of review: Detection of early HIV infections (EHIs), including acute HIV infection (AHI), is important for individual health, prevention of HIV transmission, and measurement of HIV incidence. We describe markers of EHI, diagnostic strategies for detecting these markers, and ways to incorporate these strategies into diagnostic and HIV incidence algorithms.Recent findings: For individual diagnosis in the USA and Europe, laboratory-based diagnostic algorithms increasingly incorporate fourth-generation HIV antigen tests, allowing for earlier detection. In some sub-Saharan African settings, symptom-based screening is being explored to identify subsets of persons at high risk for AHI. Point-of-care diagnostics designed for AHI detection are in the pipeline and, if validated, represent an opportunity for real-time AHI diagnosis. At the population level, multiassay algorithms are promising new strategies for estimating HIV incidence on the basis of several assays applied to cross-sectional samples. These algorithms can be developed to optimize performance, in addition to cost and logistical considerations.Summary: There are important recent advances in detection of EHIs at the individual and population levels. Applying optimal combinations of tests in diagnostic and HIV incidence algorithms is urgently needed to support the multiple goals derived from enhanced detection and discrimination of EHIs. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Weigel R.,Lighthouse Trust at Kamuzu Central Hospital and Ministry of Health | Weigel R.,Swiss Paraplegic Research | Hochgesang M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Brinkhof M.W.G.,University of Bern | And 8 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Loss to follow-up is a major challenge of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to a) determine true outcomes of patients lost to follow-up (LTFU) and b) identify risk factors associated with successful tracing and deaths of patients LTFU from ART in a large public sector clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi.Methods: Patients who were more than 2 weeks late according to their last ART supply and who provided a phone number or address in Lilongwe were eligible for tracing. Their outcomes were updated and risk factors for successful tracing and death were examined.Results: Of 1800 patients LTFU with consent for tracing, 724 (40%) were eligible and tracing was successful in 534 (74%): 285 (53%) were found to be alive and on ART; 32 (6%) had stopped ART; and 217 (41%) had died. Having a phone contact doubled tracing success (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.0) and odds of identifying deaths [aOR = 1.8 (1.2-2.7)] in patients successfully traced. Mortality was higher when ART was fee-based at initiation (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.7) and declined with follow-up time on ART. Limiting the analysis to patients living in Lilongwe did not change the main findings.Conclusion: Ascertainment of contact information is a prerequisite for tracing, which can reveal outcomes of a large proportion of patients LTFU. Having a phone contact number is critical for successful tracing, but further research should focus on understanding whether phone tracing is associated with any differential reporting of mortality or LTFU. © 2011 Weigel et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gaylord D.R.,Washington State University | Neall V.E.,Private University of the North
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2012

The Maitahi Formation is a large-volume (>7.5 km3) debris-avalanche deposit that resulted from a mid-Pleistocene (ca. 0.24-0.21 Ma) collapse of Pouakai Volcano, Taranaki Peninsula, New Zealand. It is best exposed at intermediate distances (12-14 km) from its source and consists of heterolithologic megaclast-rich and megaclast-poor facies. There are four megaclast and clast types: (1) volcanogenic sedimentary deposits derived from the cone and ring plain; (2) extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks derived primarily from the cone; (3) Pliocene mudstone-rich, subedifice bedrock; and (4) pyroclastic deposits derived from the cone and ring plain. Transport of intact, weakly to moderately lithified, volcanogenic sedimentary and bedrock megaclasts and megaclast domains, tens of meters in diameter, indicates that the W-NW-directed Maitahi debris avalanche was dominantly viscous and nonturbulent. Normally faulted, stratified megaclasts reflect flow dilation, whereas jigsaw-puzzle fractured megaclasts and clasts are evidence for early-stage compression and limited particle-particle and particle-substrate collisions. Folded and elongated megaclasts and clasts and injected interclast matrix reflect the influences of syn- and postavalanche compression, loading, penetrative shear, and pore-fluid overpressures. A significant subedifice bedrock and ring-plain megaclast and clast content distinguishes the Maitahi Formation from all other Taranaki Peninsula debris-avalanche deposits. Coupled with its large volume, the subedifice bedrock content also suggests that the Maitahi Formation originated from a deep-seated edifice collapse, unlike subsequent, and apparently shallower, edifice collapses at the nearby and genetically similar Egmont Volcano. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

Vashisht H.,University of Delhi | Bahadur I.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Kumar S.,University of Delhi | Singh G.,University of Delhi | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2014

The effect of benzyl triphenyl phosphonium chloride (BTPPC) and halide ion (KI) on the corrosion of mild steel in a solution of 0.3 M phosphoric acid have been investigated at various inhibitor concentrations and temperatures by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), temperature kinetic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies, respectively. Results obtained from potentiodynamic polarization studies, reveal that BTPPC and KI are mixed type inhibitors for mild steel in 0.3 M phosphoric acid. The synergistic effect of BTPPC and KI in corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.3 M H3PO4 containing low concentration of I- has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization studies. The experimental results suggest that the presence of iodide ions in the solution stabilized the adsorption of BTPPC molecules on the metal surface and improved the inhibition efficiency of BTPPC. The corrosion behavior of mild steel in 0.3 M H3PO4 without and with the inhibitor at various concentrations was studied in the temperature range from (298 to 338) K. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in concentration at all temperatures. The inhibition efficiencies decrease with an increase in temperature. The adsorption of BTPPC + KI accords to the Temkin adsorption isotherm. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as effective activation energy (Ea), Gibbs free energy of adsorption (ΔG°ads) and heat of adsorption (ΔH°ads) indicate that the adsorption of BTPPC + KI on the mild steel surface is primarily physical in nature. The results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are in agreement with the electrochemical analysis results. © 2014 The Authors.

Singh A.K.,Private University of the North | Singh A.K.,FOCUS RESEARCH | Singh A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Ebenso E.E.,Private University of the North | Ebenso E.E.,FOCUS RESEARCH
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2014

The corrosion inhibition properties of cefradine (CFD) for mild steel corrosion in HCl solution were analysed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and gravimetric methods. Potentiodynamic polarization study clearly revealed that cefradine acted as mixed type inhibitor. The experimental data showed a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The various thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption processes were evaluated in order to elaborate adsorption mechanism. Adsorption of inhibitor obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. © 2014 by ESG.

This research focused on the impacts of discourses on images and, in turn, on the impact of these images on actions. Specifically, on the restoration actions conditioned by an image of secularization facing an autonomy discourse. For this purpose, analysis categories were defined: discourses, images and actions. Subsequently, discourse types were identified: heteronomy and autonomy; then, the type of images: worship and secular. And finally, the types of actions: restoration and new works. As a result of the analysis, a power relationship between discourses and images was established, projected by people with some type of power, which further inspired restoration actions, and the discourses and images projected by those affected by such actions.

Dykes R.C.,Massey University | Brook M.S.,Private University of the North | Winkler S.,University of Canterbury
Erdkunde | Year: 2010

Summary: The Tasman Glacier is one of many freshwater-terminating glaciers located in the Aoraki/Mt Cook National Park that has retreated significantly since the mid-20th century. Although there have been several observations made of the glacier since the formation of Tasman Lake and the following rapid retreat, the glacier entered a period of rapid terminus disintegration and retreat since c. AD 2000. The retreat of Tasman Glacier between 2000 and 2008 has occurred in two distinct periods: an initial period of relatively slow retreat prior to 2006, followed by a secondary period of rapid retreat between 2006 and 2008. Terminus full width retreat for the period 2000-2006 occurred at a rate of 54 m a-1, accelerating to 144 m a-1 during 2006-2008. During the period 2000-2006, the controlling process of ice loss at the terminus was iceberg calving resulting from thermal undercutting. In contrast, the retreat between 2006 and 2008 was probably controlled by buoyancy-driven iceberg calving caused by decreased overburden pressure as a result of supraglacial pond growth. As a result, the surface area of Tasman Lake has increased by 86% over the period 2000-2008, with lake volume increasing by 284% between 1995 and 2008. Currently, the volume of Tasman Lake is 510 × 106 m3. It will increase dramatically in near future as the lake expands into deeper water.

This article describes the implementation of a computer vision system to determine the effect of time and temperature on the color generated by the roasting of coffee, for which a software tool in the mathematical software Matlab, previously parameterized using color data for the roasting process was developed and implemented. The color was measured in CIEL*a*b* space and the data were analyzed using the statistical response surface design. The result of this work is a system that allows for realtime sensory information about color and therefore has an advantage over existing traditional systems. The study shows that computer vision system could distinguish different shades during roasting of coffee depending on process parameters and good capacity for generalization. © 2014 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. All Rights Reserved.

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