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Frederiksberg, Denmark

Lange-Consiglio A.,University of Milan | Rossi D.,Centro Of Ricerca E Menni | Tassan S.,Private practitioner | Perego R.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development

We have recently demonstrated that heterologous transplantation of horse amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal cells (AMCs) can be useful for cell therapy applications in tendon diseases, and hypothesized that these cells may promote tendon repair via paracrine-acting molecules targeting inflammatory processes. To test this hypothesis, here we examined the immunomodulatory characteristics of AMCs and of their conditioned medium (AMC-CM) in vitro, and studied the potential therapeutic effect of AMC-CM in thirteen different spontaneous horse tendon and ligament injuries in vivo. Our results demonstrate that AMCs are capable of inhibiting peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation after allogenic stimulation either when cocultured in cell-to-cell contact, or when the two cell types are physically separated by a transwell membrane, suggesting that soluble factors are implicated in this phenomenon. Our hypothesis is further supported by the demonstration that PBMC proliferation is inhibited by AMC-CM. In our in vivo studies, no significant adverse effects were observed in treated tendons, and clinical and ultrasonographical evaluation did not reveal evidence of inappropriate tissue or tumor formation. Clinical outcomes were favorable and the significantly lower rate (15.38%) of reinjuries observed compared to untreated animals, suggests that treatment with AMC-CM is very efficacious. In conclusion, this study identifies AMC-CM as a novel therapeutic biological cell-free product for treating horse tendon and ligament diseases. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013. Source

Maina E.,Servizi Dermatologici Veterinari | Maina E.,Ghent University | Galzerano M.,Private practitioner | Noli C.,Servizi Dermatologici Veterinari
Veterinary Dermatology

Background: Perianal pruritus has been reported in dogs with anal sac disease but not in healthy dogs. Some authors describe it as typical of allergy, but there is little evidence in support of this. Hypothesis/Objectives: The aim was to investigate the association between perianal pruritus and canine atopic dermatitis (CAD), adverse food reaction (ARF) and other skin diseases in dogs. Animals: Two hundred and fifty privately owned dogs with skin disease and without anal sac disease. Methods: The presence or absence of perianal pruritus, macroscopic and cytological evaluation of the perianal skin surface and the macroscopic appearance of anal sac contents were assessed. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed to compare the frequency of perianal pruritus with the clinical diagnoses and with clinical and cytological parameters. Results: Perianal pruritus was seen in 39 of 75 dogs with CAD, in 29 of 57 dogs with ARF and in only 24 of 118 dogs with other conditions. The frequency of perianal pruritus in dogs with CAD and/or ARF was significantly higher than that in dogs with other diagnoses (P < 0.0001). No other disease was significantly associated with perianal pruritus. Perianal pruritus was significantly associated with signs of perianal alopecia, erythema, excoriations, lichenification and hyperpigmentation; it was not associated with the presence of bacteria or yeasts or with anal sac impaction. Conclusions and clinical importance: Perianal pruritus was seen more frequently in dogs with AFR/CAD than with other dermatological diseases. This is the first study to evaluate perianal pruritus in dogs with skin disease and without anal sac disease. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD. Source

Mackness B.,Private practitioner | Mackness M.,Calle de lArgelagar
Panminerva Medica

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is protective against atherosclerosis development. Other than its central role in reverse cholesterol transport, HDL exhibits several other mechanisms by which it is protective. These include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptopic activities and the normalisation of vascular function. In light of the current view that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is essential for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, the antioxidative properties of HDL may be an important protective mechanism. HDL can retard the oxidation of LDL and limit its atherogenicity. Several proteins are present on HDL and the evidence that some of them metabolise lipid peroxidation products of phospholipids, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides associated with LDL and vascular cell membranes are discussed in this review. Source

Guimaraes T.,University of Porto | Lopes G.,University of Porto | Ferreira P.,University of Porto | Leal I.,Private practitioner | Rocha A.,University of Porto
Animal Reproduction Science

Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is a useful tool to preserve genetic material of valuable stallions after emergency castration or unexpected death. For that, testicles and epididymides are generally sent refrigerated to the laboratory. Collection of epididymal spermatozoa is a simple procedure that reduces the volume of the material to be shipped, and may improve the quality of the chilled epididymal sperm cells. In the present study we compared the characteristics of frozen/thawed epididymal spermatozoa after refrigeration of the epididymis or after direct refrigeration of the extended epididymal sperm cells. Ejaculated sperm samples were obtained from 10 healthy stallions with at least 15 days of sexual rest, before routine orchiectomies. Spermatozoa were recovered from the epididymal tail immediately after castration (EPI), after refrigeration of the epididymis for 24. h at 4. °C (EPI R) and recovered from epididymal tail immediately after castration and stored for 24. h at 4. °C (EPI RR). Total motility, straight-line velocity, percentage of rapid cells, viability and morphological defects were similar (p> 0.05) among different treatments, and post-thaw viability was higher (p< 0.05) in EPI than in the ejaculated sperm. The similarity of post-thaw parameters led us to conclude that immediate collection and refrigeration of the epididymal sperm cells or refrigeration of the whole epididymis are equally efficient as a means of transporting material for 24. h before cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

d'Ovidio D.,Private practitioner | Grable S.L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Ferrara M.,Ambulatorio Veterinario Domitio | Santoro D.,University of Florida
Journal of Small Animal Practice

Objectives: Guinea pigs have been indicated as a potential source of zoophilic dermatophytes that cause human dermatomycosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytes as well as saprophytic fungi in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy. Methods: Two-hundred pet guinea pigs were enrolled from both private veterinary clinics and pet shops in the Campania region, Italy, from August 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected using the MacKenzie's toothbrush technique. The plates were incubated for four weeks at 25°C and identification of the fungal colonies was based on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Results: Two pathogenic dermatophytes were isolated in 9 (4·5%) of 200 guinea pigs; Epidermophyton species in 2 (1%) and Scopulariopsis species in 7 (3·5%). Saprophytic dermatophytes were isolated from 151 (75·5%) animals enrolled. No fungal growth was observed in 40 (20%) guinea pigs. Clinical Significance: The results of this study indicate a low prevalence of pathogenic dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy but the presence of Epidermophyton and Scopulariopsis species in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Source

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