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Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2017

The ability to detect 'known' differences in urinary analyte concentrations due to gender, age, and race/ethnicity when adjusted for similar differences in urinary creatinine concentrations were evaluated by a single-stage and a two-stage model by ten simulation studies. Log10 transformed values of observed urinary analyte concentration were used as the dependent variable and age, gender, and race/ethnicity were used as the categorical independent variables. In addition, while single-stage model used log10 transformed values of urinary creatinine as a covariate, two-stage model used a correction factor (CF) determined during the first stage of the model by fitting a secondary model for urinary creatinine. Single-stage model was almost always able to statistically significantly detect 'known' differences due to age, gender, and race/ethnicity. On the other hand, two-stage model was able to statistically significantly detect 'known' differences due to age, gender, and race/ethnicity a maximum of 87.2% of the times and as low as 10.6% of the times primarily because of the presence of multicollinearity between CF and urinary creatinine concentrations. Consequently, as long as the sole objective is to estimate the urinary analyte concentrations adjusted for the effect of all factors including urinary creatinine, single-stage models are the models of choice. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Calandra G.,Private Consultant | Bridger G.,Genzyme | Fricker S.,Genzyme
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2010

Pharmacological manipulation of CXCR4 has proven clinically useful for mobilization of stem and progenitor cells and in several preclinical models of disease. It is a key component in the localization of leukocytes and stem cells. For patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, treatment with plerixafor, an inhibitor of CXCL12 binding to CXCR4, plus G-CSF mobilizes stem cells for autologous transplantation to a greater degree than the treatment with G-CSF alone, and in some cases when patients could not be mobilized with cytokines, chemotherapy, or the combination. Stem cells from healthy donors mobilized with single agent plerixafor have been used for allogeneic transplantation in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients, although this is still in the early phase of clinical development. Plerixafor is also undergoing evaluation to mobilize tumor cells in patients with AML and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy regimens. Plerixafor's effect on neutrophils may also restore circulating neutrophil counts to normal levels in patients with chronic neutropenias such as inWHIMs syndrome. Other areas where inhibition of CXCR4 may be useful based upon preclinical or clinical data include peripheral vascular disease, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary inflammation, and HIV. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.


Contaminants are undesirable constituents in food. They may be formed during production of a processed food, present as a component in a source material, deliberately added to substitute for the proper substance, or the consequence of poor food-handling practices. Contaminants may be chemicals or pathogens. Chemicals generally degrade over time and become of less concern as a health threat. Pathogens have the ability to multiply, potentially resulting in an increased threat level. Formal structures have been lacking for systematically generating and evaluating hazard and exposure data for bioactive agents when problem situations arise. We need to know what the potential risk may be to determine whether intervention to reduce or eliminate contact with the contaminant is warranted. We need tools to aid us in assembling and assessing all available relevant information in an expeditious and scientifically sound manner. One such tool is the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF). Developed as an extension of the WHO's International Program on Chemical Safety/ILSI mode of action/human relevance framework, it allows risk assessors to understand not only how a contaminant exerts its toxicity but also the dose response(s) for each key event and the ultimate outcome, including whether a threshold exists. This presentation will illustrate use of the KEDRF with case studies included in its development (chloroform and Listeriaonocytogenes) after its publication in the peer-reviewed scientific literature (chromium VI) and in a work in progress (3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol). © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2013

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey for the years 2003-2010 were used (n=4700) to evaluate the effect of age, parity, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, pregnancy, iron (Fe) storage status, smoking status, and fish/shellfish consumption on the levels of blood cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and total mercury (Hg)for females aged 17-39yr old. Regression analysis was used to fit models for each of the three metals. For all three metals, age was positively and BMI was negatively associated with levels of these metals in blood. Smokers had statistically significantly higher levels of Cd and Pb irrespective of race/ethnicity and Fe storage status as compared to nonsmokers. Novel to this study, pregnancy was found to be associated with significantly lower levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg irrespective of race/ethnicity and Fe storage status as compared to nonpregnant females. It is conceivable that pregnancy may thus accelerate clearance of these metals from blood. Fish/shellfish consumption was associated with higher levels of Hg but not with Cd levels. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Biomarkers | Year: 2016

Cutoff levels on the scales for benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, styrene, o-xylene and m/p-xylene in blood were developed to classify smokers from non-smokers. Self-reported smoking during the last 5 d was used as the true smoking status. Receiver operating characteristics methods that minimized the difference between specificity and sensitivity were used to develop these cutoffs. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the cycle 2005–2006 were used for this purpose. For the total population, a cutoff of 0.038 ng/ml for benzene was able to classify smokers from non-smokers with a sensitivity of 83.6% and specificity of 83.7%. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2016

Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Consequently, this study was undertaken to assess the thyroid health of the pregnant females in the United States. Publically available data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the cycles 1999–2002 and 2007–2012 were analyzed for this purpose. Over 22% (SE: 5.7%) of the pregnant females based on the unweighted data in their first trimester had higher than the recommended levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or 2.5 mIU/L. Free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels decreased over pregnancy trimesters. Based on unweighted data, about 6% (SE: 2.6%) pregnant females were positive for thyroglobulin antibodies and 34.9% (SE: 5.2%) pregnant females were positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Over 55% (SE: 3.5%) pregnant females based on the unweighted data were iodine deficient. As many as 41% (SE: 3%) first trimester pregnant females having TSH > 2.5 mIU/L is of concern. Future research should concentrate on developing educational and other materials that can advise pregnant females during their prenatal care and other appointments about the adverse effects of high TSH levels and what they can do to keep their TSH levels within the recommended levels. © , This article not subject to United States copyright law.


Hitchin R.,Private Consultant
Building Services Engineering Research and Technology | Year: 2015

A new calculation method for monthly cooling energy demand is presented which extends the utilisation factor method of standard EN ISO 13790:2008 to take account of a number of important features of air-conditioning systems that are currently ignored. In all other respects it is compatible with this method, which is the most widely used means of producing building Energy Performance Certificates in Europe. In particular it enables the impact of free cooling, and of the tempering of supply air to be quantified; calculates tailored seasonal efficiency figures for chillers, and provides initial estimates of the potential savings of inter-room heat recovery and of the energy penalties associated with terminal reheat and dual duct systems. Practical application: This paper proposes an extension to the most widely used calculation method for Energy Performance Certificates in Europe, improving its ability to reflect important features of central air-conditioning systems. This is of particular importance for climates and buildings where cooling is required when the outdoor air temperature is relatively low. In particular it enables the impact of free cooling, and of the tempering of supply air to be quantified, calculates tailored seasonal efficiency figures for chillers, and provides initial estimates of the potential savings of inter-room heat recovery and of the energy penalties associated with some other systems. © SAGE Publications.


Fenner-Crisp P.A.,Private Consultant
Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2011

In 1998, the National Toxicology Program concluded that inhalation exposure to tetrahydrofuran resulted in increased incidences of renal adenomas and carcinomas (combined) in male F344 rats and of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas (combined) in female B6C3F1 mice. In the present paper, the bioassay results and additional information are evaluated using the IPCS/ILSI Mode of Action/Human Relevance Framework to determine if the data are sufficient to describe the possible mode(s) of action (MOA) underlying the reported results for the rat renal tumor and to determine if any of these modes of action could be operative in humans. Preliminary analysis of the rat renal tumor data and related information suggested that a MOA could be described, but questions remained concerning the role that chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) may play in the development of the lesions. In 2009, a Pathology Working Group concluded that the rat renal lesions resulted primarily from regenerative processes associated with advanced CPN. The renal tumor finding is considered not relevant to humans and should not be considered in any further risk assessment efforts on this chemical. A companion paper describes a similar analysis of the female mouse liver tumor finding.


Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2013

Effect of smoking and caffeine consumption (CC) on the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) has not been adequately studied. Data from 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 1013) to simultaneously evaluate the effect of smoking and CC on levels of serum 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47), 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99), 2,2′,4,4′,6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-100), 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-153), and their sum and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl (PBB-153) were used. Regression models were fitted with logs of PBDE and PBB as dependent variables and age, age2, gender, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, smoking status, fish/shellfish consumption status during the last 30 d, and CC as independent variables. For lipid-adjusted models, age was negatively associated while age2 was positively associated with almost all PBDE models. The reverse was the case for PBB-153. Body mass index was found to be negatively associated with PBDE-153 and PBB-153. Levels of all whole weight PBDE increased with levels of total lipid. Smoking was not markedly associated with concentrations of either PBDE or PBB. Males displayed significantly higher levels of PBDE-153 and ΣPBDE. For the whole weight PBDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 and PBB-153, non-Hispanic black (NHB) males showed significantly higher levels than NHB females. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


News Article | October 31, 2016
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

HOUSTON, TX, October 31, 2016-- Donald C. Shoultz, Private Consultant, has been recognized for showing dedication, leadership and excellence in consulting services.Worldwide Branding, the world's leading international personal branding organization, is proud to endorse the notable professional efforts and accomplishments of Donald C. Shoultz. A member in good standing, Mr. Shoultz parlays years of experience into his professional network, and has been noted for achievements, leadership abilities, and the credentials he has provided in association with his Worldwide Branding membership.Each day, Mr. Shoultz provides learning and organizational development consulting for corporations, businesses and government organizations. In his previous role, he spearheaded, designed, launched, and oversaw the BP "eXcellence" program by providing actionable roadmaps for accelerated development of deep technical expertise. As a result, he was able to reduce time for early- and mid-career employees to reach senior competency and performance levels.Mr. Shoultz is pursuing a master's degree in counseling and a Ph.D. in leadership, organizational behavior, human resources, research and statistics from the University of South Florida. He also holds a Master of Education in learning, development and educational psychology from Kent State University and a Bachelor of Science in psychology, which he earned from Houghton College.Worldwide Branding has added Mr. Shoultz to their distinguished Registry of Executives, Professionals and Entrepreneurs. While inclusion in Worldwide Branding is an honor, only small selections of members in each discipline are endorsed and promoted as leaders in their professional fields.About Worldwide BrandingFor more than 15 years, Worldwide Branding has been the leading, one-stop-shop, personal branding company, in the United States and abroad. From writing professional biographies and press releases, to creating and driving Internet traffic to personal websites, our team of branding experts tailor each product specifically for our clients' needs. From health care to finance to education and law, our constituents represent every major industry and occupation, at all career levels.For more information, please visit http://www.worldwidebranding.com

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