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Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2016

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) uses two tobacco use surveillance questionnaires. One is administered during an at-home interview (HI) and the other, during an examination session at a mobile examination center (MEC). NHANES data for the years 1999–2012 were used to evaluate the consistency of responses to tobacco surveillance questions in HI and MEC interview. In addition, accuracy of self-reported smoking status was evaluated. Of those who reported to be daily cigarette smokers during HI, 18.7% reported to be either some-day smokers or nonsmokers during MEC interview. Of those who reported to be some-day cigarette smokers during HI, 22.1% reported to be daily smokers and 17.5% reported to be nonsmokers. Also, 4.1% of those who reported to be nonsmokers during HI reported to be either daily or some-day smokers during MEC interview. Using serum cotinine measurements taken during MEC interview, 27.1% were found to be smokers and 72.9% were found to be nonsmokers. In general, a moderate to high agreement, as measured by the κ statistic, was found between the self-reported responses to tobacco use questions during the home and MEC interviews as well as between smoking statuses based on self-reported and serum cotinine measurements. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2016

Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Consequently, this study was undertaken to assess the thyroid health of the pregnant females in the United States. Publically available data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the cycles 1999–2002 and 2007–2012 were analyzed for this purpose. Over 22% (SE: 5.7%) of the pregnant females based on the unweighted data in their first trimester had higher than the recommended levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or 2.5 mIU/L. Free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels decreased over pregnancy trimesters. Based on unweighted data, about 6% (SE: 2.6%) pregnant females were positive for thyroglobulin antibodies and 34.9% (SE: 5.2%) pregnant females were positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Over 55% (SE: 3.5%) pregnant females based on the unweighted data were iodine deficient. As many as 41% (SE: 3%) first trimester pregnant females having TSH > 2.5 mIU/L is of concern. Future research should concentrate on developing educational and other materials that can advise pregnant females during their prenatal care and other appointments about the adverse effects of high TSH levels and what they can do to keep their TSH levels within the recommended levels. © , This article not subject to United States copyright law. Source


Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to develop regression models to estimate the total concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in serum based on the known concentrations of a limited number of congeners. Because of the possible adverse health effects associated with the exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, it is of interest to know their total concentrations. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2003–2004 (N = 1859) were used to develop regression models to estimate both wet weight and lipid-adjusted total concentrations. Only the knowledge of three congeners, namely, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentadibromodiphenyl ether, and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether was required to use these models. Other than the concentrations of these three congeners, age, gender, and smoking status were the only information needed to use these models. Optionally, models were developed that could also use the race/ethnicity of the participants. All models explained more than 98% of the known variability in the observed total concentration levels. Over 98% of the model generated, predicted values were found to be within 5% of the observed values. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source


Fenner-Crisp P.A.,Private Consultant
Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2011

In 1998, the National Toxicology Program concluded that inhalation exposure to tetrahydrofuran resulted in increased incidences of renal adenomas and carcinomas (combined) in male F344 rats and of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas (combined) in female B6C3F1 mice. In the present paper, the bioassay results and additional information are evaluated using the IPCS/ILSI Mode of Action/Human Relevance Framework to determine if the data are sufficient to describe the possible mode(s) of action (MOA) underlying the reported results for the rat renal tumor and to determine if any of these modes of action could be operative in humans. Preliminary analysis of the rat renal tumor data and related information suggested that a MOA could be described, but questions remained concerning the role that chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) may play in the development of the lesions. In 2009, a Pathology Working Group concluded that the rat renal lesions resulted primarily from regenerative processes associated with advanced CPN. The renal tumor finding is considered not relevant to humans and should not be considered in any further risk assessment efforts on this chemical. A companion paper describes a similar analysis of the female mouse liver tumor finding. Source


Jain R.B.,Private Consultant
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2013

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey for the years 2003-2010 were used (n=4700) to evaluate the effect of age, parity, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, pregnancy, iron (Fe) storage status, smoking status, and fish/shellfish consumption on the levels of blood cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and total mercury (Hg)for females aged 17-39yr old. Regression analysis was used to fit models for each of the three metals. For all three metals, age was positively and BMI was negatively associated with levels of these metals in blood. Smokers had statistically significantly higher levels of Cd and Pb irrespective of race/ethnicity and Fe storage status as compared to nonsmokers. Novel to this study, pregnancy was found to be associated with significantly lower levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg irrespective of race/ethnicity and Fe storage status as compared to nonpregnant females. It is conceivable that pregnancy may thus accelerate clearance of these metals from blood. Fish/shellfish consumption was associated with higher levels of Hg but not with Cd levels. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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