Wang H.,University of California at Riverside |
Lin K.,University of California at Riverside |
Hou Z.,University of California at Riverside |
Hou Z.,Shihezi University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2010
Background, aim, and scope Terbuthylazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides for vegetation management in forest plantations in New Zealand. Knowledge about the sorption of terbuthylazine on forest soils, especially the influence of coexisting organic amendments, remains obscure. In this study, we evaluated the effects of biosolids and biochars on the sorption of terbuthylazine to forest soils. Materials and methods Two pumice soils, including a forest landing site soil with low soil organic matter content and an organic carbon rich topsoil under standard forest management, were sampled from a 2-year-old replanted pine plantation. The soils were mixed with four organic amendments, including two thermally dried biosolids with one digested and the other undigested, a biochar produced from high temperature pyrolysis (700°C), and a biochar from pyrolysis with a lower temperature (approximately 350°C). A batch equilibration method was used todetermine terbuthylazine adsorption-desorption in organic amendment-treated and untreated soils. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were described with the Freundlich equation. Results and discussion Adsorption and desorption isotherms in the soils with or without organic amendments were well described by the Freundlich model. The undigested or digested biosolids added to the topsoil had a negligible or limited effect on the adsorption to terbuthylazine. The addition of the other amendments to the two soils all enhanced the adsorption. The biochars displayed higher efficiency in improving soils' adsorption capacity to terbuthylazine than the biosolids. Among the organic amendments evaluated, the biochar obtained from high temperature pyrolysis demonstrated the most significant enhancement on adsorption with an enhancing factor of 63; whereas, the digested biosolids showed the weakest enhancement. Furthermore, terbuthylazine adsorbed by the digested biosolids appeared to be more easily desorbed than that by biochar treatments. Conclusions This work indicates that the addition of organic amendments to forest soils, particularly biochar to a soil with low native organic matter, may enhance soil sorption of terbuthylazine and thus reduce the possibility of the hydrophobic herbicide leaching to groundwater. © Springer-Verlag 2009.
Wu Z.,Hainan University |
Wu Z.,Nanjing University |
McGrouther K.,Private Bag 3020 |
Huang J.,Hainan University |
And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014
Glomalin is a metal-sorbing glycoprotein excreted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). One method of estimating glomalin in soils is as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP). In this study the role of GRSP in sequestering Pb and Cd was investigated in an in situ field experiment. The effect of metal sequestration on the subsequent decomposition of GRSP was also investigated. GRSP was determined using the Bradford method as total glomalin-related soil protein (T-GRSP) and as easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP). After 140 days, GRSP bound Pb accounted for 0.21-1.78% of the total Pb, and GRSP bound Cd accounted for 0.38-0.98% of the total Cd content in the soil. However when compared on a soil organic matter (SOM) basis, only 4% of the Pb or Cd was bound to the GRSP fraction of the SOM compared with 40-54% of the Pb or Cd bound to the humin and fulvic acids in the SOM fraction. In soils contaminated with the highest levels of Pb and Cd, the T-GRSP (EE-GRSP) decomposition after 140 days was reduced by 8.0 (6.6)% and 7.0 (7.5)%, respectively, when compared with the controls. In the high Pb or Cd treatment groups we found that the fraction of metal bound to GRSP increased even though the total GRSP content declined over time. The mass ratio between Pb and GRSP-carbon changed from 2.3 to 271.4 mg (100 g)-1 in all Pb levels soil, while with the high-Cd treatment group the mass ratio between Cd and GRSP-carbon (0.36 mg (100 g)-1) was higher than the mass ratio seen with Cd-bound humic acid fractions. Our in situ field study shows that while GRSP does bind Pb and Cd, in the soils we investigated, the levels are insignificant compared to soil organic matter such as humic and fulvic acids. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore J.R.,Private Bag 3020 |
Cown D.J.,Private Bag 3020 |
Lee J.R.,Private Bag 3020 |
McKinley R.B.,Private Bag 3020 |
And 4 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2014
Key message Stem guying to prevent wind-induced swaying of radiata pine trees resulted in significant changes in radial growth, but did not affect the frequency of compression wood or resin features. Abstract Mechanical stress resulting from wind forces acting on trees can cause a number of direct and indirect effects ranging from microscopic changes in cambial activity through to stem breakage and uprooting. To better understand these effects on radial stem growth and wood properties, an experiment was established in a 13-year-old radiata pine (Pinus radiata D Don) stand in which 20 trees were guyed to prevent them from swaying. Radial growth was monitored in these trees and 20 matched controls at monthly intervals for 5 years. The trees were then felled and radial growth, resin features and compression wood were assessed on cross-sectional discs taken at fixed locations up the stem. There was a significant reduction in radial growth at breast height (1.4 m above the ground) in the guyed trees, but an increase in growth immediately above the guying point. A total of 277 resin features were observed in the growth rings formed following guying. The overall frequency of such features was related to height within the stem and annual ring number. No effect of stem guying was found on the incidence of compression wood. Interestingly, the distribution of resin features also did not differ between guyed and un-guyed trees. There was no evidence of a link between stem restraint as a result of guying and the incidence of resin features, suggesting that other factors, such as soil moisture may be more influential. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014
Newman R.H.,Private Bag 3020 |
Hill S.J.,Private Bag 3020 |
Harris P.J.,University of Auckland
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013
A synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering study of mung bean (Vigna radiata) primary cell walls was combined with published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data to test models for packing of (1→4)-β-glucan chains in cellulose microfibrils. Computer-simulated peak shapes, calculated for 36-chain microfibrils with perfect order or uncorrelated disorder, were sharper than those in the experimental diffractogram. Introducing correlated disorder into the models broaden the simulated peaks but only when the disorder was increased to unrealistic magnitudes. Computer-simulated diffractograms, calculated for 24- and 18-chain models, showed good fits to experimental data. Particularly good fits to both x-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance data were obtained for collections of 18-chain models with mixed cross-sectional shapes and occasional twinning. Synthesis of 18-chain microfibrils is consistent with a model for cellulose-synthesizing complexes in which three cellulose synthase polypeptides form a particle and six particles form a rosette. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Kimberley M.O.,Private Bag 3020 |
Moore J.R.,Private Bag 3020 |
Dungey H.S.,Private Bag 3020
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015
Realised genetic gain for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) was estimated using data from 46 installations of three series of block-plot trials spanning a wide range of site types throughout New Zealand. These trials contained 63 unique seedlots with different levels of genetic improvement. Realised genetic gain was quantified using two measures of productivity: site index and 300 Index (a measure of volume productivity). The level of genetic improvement of each seedlot was determined by its GF Plus rating, a genetic rating system based on breeding values used for New Zealand radiata pine. There was a positive relationship between GF Plus rating and both productivity measures. Differences of 25% in total standing volume at age 30 years and of 5.6% in site index were found between unimproved (GF Plus 9.9) and highly improved (GF Plus 25) seedlots. Each unit increase in GF Plus rating was associated with a 1.51% increase in volume growth rate. In absolute terms, the magnitude of the increase was greater on more productive sites compared with less productive sites, although in percentage terms, it varied little between sites or regions. Quantification of genetic gain in this manner enables it to be easily incorporated into existing growth and yield simulators. © 2015, National Research Council of Canada, All rights reserved.