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Metabolic profiling through targeted quantification of a predefined subset of metabolites, performed by mass spectrometric analytical techniques, allows detailed investigation of biological pathways and thus may provide information about the interaction of different organic systems, ultimately improving understanding of disease risk and prognosis in a variety of diseases. Early risk assessment, in turn, may improve patient management in regard to cite-of-care decisions and treatment modalities. Within this review, we focus on the potential of metabolic profiling to improve our pathophysiological understanding of disease and management of patients. We focus thereby on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an important disease responsible for high mortality, morbidity and costs worldwide. Observational data from numerous clinical and experimental studies have provided convincing data linking metabolic blood biomarkers such as lactate, glucose or cortisol to patient outcomes. Also, identified through metabolomic studies, novel innovative metabolic markers such as steroid hormones, biogenic amines, members of the oxidative status, sphingo- and glycerophospholipids, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) have shown promising results. Since many uncertainties remain in predicting mortality in these patients, further prospective and retrospective observational studies are needed to uncover metabolic pathways responsible for mortality associated with LRTI. Improved understanding of outcome-specific metabolite signatures in LRTIs may optimize patient management strategies, provide potential new targets for future individual therapy, and thereby improve patients' chances for survival. © 2015 Nickler et al.

PubMed | University of Washington, University of California at San Francisco, Principal and University of South Carolina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sports health | Year: 2016

Concussion legislation has been enacted in all 50 of the United States, aiming to prevent mild traumatic brain injuries and the potential long-term sequelae of these injuries in youth athletics. Sports medicine providers, in addressing this major public health concern, are tasked with adhering to the established standards of medical care while also considering the legal implications.The PubMed (2011-2016) database was searched using the following search terms: concussion, sports concussion, legislation, and concussion legislation. References from consensus statements, review articles, and book chapters were also utilized.Clinical review.Level 4.The Lystedt law and its progeny have increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of sports concussion, but adherence to state legislation can pose some challenges.The presence of concussion legislation places a responsibility on the sports medicine provider to have a firm understanding of the legality of concussion management in the state(s) in which they practice.

News Article | February 28, 2017

DES MOINES, Iowa--(BUSINESS WIRE)--For the 16th time, Principal Financial Group® is one of the NAFE Top Companies for Executive Women, as named by the National Association for Female Executives. NAFE aims to recognize American corporations where women have significant clout to make the decisions that affect their company’s future and its bottom line. The NAFE Top 60 Companies, released today, is featured in the February/March issue of Working Mother. The full list of this year’s winners are listed on “Being named a top company for executive women for the 16th time shows that we’ve had a long-time commitment to workplace diversity and gender equality,” said Beth Raymond, senior vice president and chief HR officer at Principal®. “Our culture is rooted in empowering employees to do their best work, and we are proud of this recognition of our efforts to foster the advancement of female employees.” The strong culture of women has produced an environment where today women at Principal comprise: These numbers are bolstered by robust leadership and development programs at Principal, including the Women in Leadership, Women in Technology Group, Women in Sales Program, Corporate Mentoring Program and a focus on succession planning. “NAFE emphasizes women with bottom-line and top-line responsibility—the positions that lead to the corner office—and we’re pleased to report an eight percent increase in women running billion-dollar divisions at the NAFE Top Companies this year,” says Subha V. Barry, vice president and general manager of Working Mother Media (WMM). “In addition, now nearly a third of these companies have five or more women on the board, with many simply increasing the number of board seats to add a woman.” NAFE is a division of WMM. About the Methodology The 2017 NAFE Top Companies application includes some 200 questions on female representation at all levels, especially the corporate officer and profit-and-loss ranks. The vetting process includes tracking access and usage of programs and policies that promote the advancement of women as well as the training and accountability of managers in relation to the number of women who advance. In order to be eligible for the NAFE Top Companies survey, entrants must have a minimum of 1,000 employees, two women on the Board of Directors and be a public or private company. NAFE also separately names the Top 10 companies in the nonprofit sector. ABOUT NAFE The National Association for Female Executives (NAFE), founded in 1972, serves 20,000 members nationwide with networking, tools and solutions to strengthen and grow their careers and businesses. Working Mother magazine publishes the annual NAFE Top Companies list. provides up-to-date information, a community for women in business, and access to member benefits. NAFE is a division of Working Mother Media, owned by the Bonnier Corporation. About Principal® Principal helps people and companies around the world build, protect and advance their financial well-being through retirement, insurance and asset management solutions that fit their lives. Our employees are passionate about helping clients of all income and portfolio sizes achieve their goals – offering innovative ideas, investment expertise and real-life solutions to make financial progress possible. To find out more, visit us at Principal, Principal and symbol design and Principal Financial Group are trademarks and service marks of Principal Financial Services, Inc., a member of the Principal Financial Group.

News Article | December 16, 2016

DES MOINES, Iowa--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Principal Financial Group® has announced Pat Halter, current CEO and senior executive director of Principal Real Estate Investors, will assume the role of chief operating officer for Principal Global Investors. Jim McCaughan remains CEO of Principal Global Investors and president of global asset management for Principal®. “Pat’s leadership and track record during his 32 years in Principal Real Estate Investors positions him well to oversee operations of Principal Global Investors as we focus on future growth,” said McCaughan. “Under Pat’s leadership, Principal Real Estate Investors has grown assets under management to more than $72 billion as of the end of the third quarter and doubled its client base.” Halter will continue to lead Principal Real Estate Investors while taking on responsibility for the day-to-day operations of Principal Global Investors, including oversight of the following boutiques: Spectrum, Post, Columbus Circle Investors and Principal Portfolio Strategies. Since joining Principal in 1984 as a commercial real estate representative, Halter has held several leadership positions within Principal Real Estate Investors before assuming the role of CEO of the boutique. As head of real estate, Halter is responsible for overall global real estate strategy, new business development, and business management, including oversight of staff located in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. His expertise includes product and fund design, new business development, portfolio strategy and investment management. A native of Wisconsin, Halter received a MBA degree in finance and a bachelor’s degree in finance and marketing from the University of Wisconsin. He is past Chairman of the Board of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Managers (NAREIM) and a member of the Real Estate Roundtable. Halter is also a member of the Pension and Real Estate Association (PREA), the Association of Foreign Investors in Real Estate (AFIRE), and serves on the Board of the Graaskamp Center for Real Estate at the University of Wisconsin. With Halter’s new role, Todd Everett, head of Principal Real Estate Fixed Income, will assume additional duties within Principal Real Estate Investors, including the direct oversight of its private equity segment. About Principal® Principal helps people and companies around the world build, protect and advance their financial well-being through retirement, insurance and asset management solutions that fit their lives. Our employees are passionate about helping clients of all income and portfolio sizes achieve their goals – offering innovative ideas, investment expertise and real-life solutions to make financial progress possible. To find out more, visit us at Principal, Principal and symbol design and Principal Financial Group are trademarks and service marks of Principal Financial Services, Inc., a member of the Principal Financial Group.

News Article | December 8, 2016

DES MOINES, Iowa--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The PGA TOUR Champions has named the Principal Charity Classic as 2016 Tournament of the Year, presenting the annual Des Moines event with its coveted “President’s Award.” The PGA TOUR bestowed the honor Wednesday, December 7, during its annual meetings in Las Vegas. Principal is the title sponsor of the Principal Charity Classic. “We thank the PGA TOUR not only for this award, but for the opportunity over the last 10 years to sponsor an event that gives so much back to our community— especially our children,” said Beth Brady, senior vice president and chief marketing officer at Principal®. “And, it’s very meaningful to receive this honor during global volunteer week, a time when many of our 15,000 employees around the world are themselves giving back in their communities.” The President’s Award is the highest tournament honor awarded by the PGA TOUR Champions annually and recognizes overall excellence, as well as the intangibles that make a tournament stand out among many successful events. This year marks the first time the Principal Charity Classic has been chosen to receive the President’s Award. “The Principal Charity Classic has left a significant charitable footprint as well as an estimated $23 million annual economic impact on the greater Des Moines region,” said Iowa Governor Terry Branstad. “That matters to this state. It’s companies like Principal, as well as the volunteers, spectators and local businesses that step up every year, that make this tournament possible and keep our state moving forward.” Principal celebrated the 10th Anniversary of its title sponsorship in 2016, which marked the tournament’s most successful year to date. Scott McCarron claimed his first career PGA TOUR Champions victory at the 2016 Principal Charity Classic with a one-shot victory over Miguel Ángel Jiménez and Billy Andrade. McCarron would go on to win the Dominion Charity Classic in November and add two runner-up finishes during the year to wind up at No. 4 in the final Charles Schwab Cup standings. The 2017 Principal Charity Classic will be played June 6-11 at Wakonda Club in Des Moines. About the Principal Charity Classic The Principal Charity Classic is an annual PGA TOUR Champions event focused on philanthropic giving. This premier golf event raises contributions for the tournament’s “FORE Our Kids” charities, including: 1) Tournament Charity Partners, select organizations that provide a broad level of support to children of Iowa in the areas of education and culture, financial security and stability, and/or health and wellness. These organizations are supported through net proceeds of the tournament; and 2) Birdies for Charity Partners, which includes more than 100 additional children’s charities across Iowa that receive support through individual pledges and contributions made prior to and during the tournament. The 2017 Principal Charity Classic tournament will be played June 6-11, 2017 at Wakonda Club in Des Moines, Iowa. For more information, visit, Facebook or Twitter. About Principal® Principal helps people and companies around the world build, protect and advance their financial well-being through retirement, insurance and asset management solutions that fit their lives. Our employees are passionate about helping clients of all income and portfolio sizes achieve their goals – offering innovative ideas, investment expertise and real-life solutions to make financial progress possible. To find out more, visit us at Principal, Principal and symbol design and Principal Financial Group are trademarks and service marks of Principal Financial Services, Inc., a member of the Principal Financial Group.

News Article | December 6, 2016

DES MOINES, Iowa--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Principal Financial Group, Inc. (NYSE:PFG) today announced certain business unit outlook metrics and an update on capital deployment plans for 2017. These metrics provide greater clarity of key drivers of earnings growth for each of the business units. There is a 30-minute conference call at 10:00 a.m. EST today, Dec. 6, 2016. Company senior leaders will provide additional detail and answer questions. Slides related to the 2017 outlook are now available at Below are the 2017 outlook metrics for each business: The outlook for 2017 incorporates certain assumptions including: Conference call information The 30-minute call at 10:00 a.m. EST today can be accessed the following ways: 855-859-2056 (U.S. and Canadian callers) 404-537-3406 (International callers) Access code 12949703 Replay will be available approximately two hours after the completion of the live outlook call through the end of day Dec. 13, 2016. Forward looking and cautionary statements Certain statements made by the company which are not historical facts may be considered forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, statements as to operating earnings, net income available to common stockholders, net cash flows, realized and unrealized gains and losses, capital and liquidity positions, sales and earnings trends, and management’s beliefs, expectations, goals and opinions. The company does not undertake to update these statements, which are based on a number of assumptions concerning future conditions that may ultimately prove to be inaccurate. Future events and their effects on the company may not be those anticipated, and actual results may differ materially from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements. The risks, uncertainties and factors that could cause or contribute to such material differences are discussed in the company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended Dec. 31, 2015, and in the company’s quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended Sept. 30, 2016, filed by the company with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, as updated or supplemented from time to time in subsequent filings. These risks and uncertainties include, without limitation: adverse capital and credit market conditions may significantly affect the company’s ability to meet liquidity needs, access to capital and cost of capital; conditions in the global capital markets and the economy generally; volatility or declines in the equity, bond or real estate markets; changes in interest rates or credit spreads or a sustained low interest rate environment; the company’s investment portfolio is subject to several risks that may diminish the value of its invested assets and the investment returns credited to customers; the company’s valuation of investments and the determination of the amount of allowances and impairments taken on such investments may include methodologies, estimations and assumptions that are subject to differing interpretations; any impairments of or valuation allowances against the company’s deferred tax assets; the company’s actual experience could differ significantly from its pricing and reserving assumptions; the pattern of amortizing the company’s DAC and other actuarial balances on its universal life-type insurance contracts, participating life insurance policies and certain investment contracts may change; the company may not be able to protect its intellectual property and may be subject to infringement claims; the company’s ability to pay stockholder dividends and meet its obligations may be constrained by the limitations on dividends or distributions Iowa insurance laws impose on Principal Life; changes in laws, regulations or accounting standards; results of litigation and regulatory investigations; from time to time the company may become subject to tax audits, tax litigation or similar proceedings, and as a result it may owe additional taxes, interest and penalties in amounts that may be material; applicable laws and the company’s certificate of incorporation and by-laws may discourage takeovers and business combinations that some stockholders might consider in their best interests; competition from companies that may have greater financial resources, broader arrays of products, higher ratings and stronger financial performance; a downgrade in the company’s financial strength or credit ratings; changes in investor preferences; inability to attract and retain qualified employees and sales representatives and develop new distribution sources; international business risks; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; the company may need to fund deficiencies in its “Closed Block” assets that support participating ordinary life insurance policies that had a dividend scale in force at the time of Principal Life’s 1998 conversion into a stock life insurance company; the company’s reinsurers could default on their obligations or increase their rates; risks arising from acquisitions of businesses; and a computer system failure or security breach could disrupt the company’s business and damage its reputation. Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures A non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of performance, financial position, or cash flows that includes adjustments from a comparable financial measure presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In this press release, the company provides outlook on certain metrics that impact operating earnings (losses) and earnings growth. Operating earnings is a non-GAAP financial measure that management believes is useful to investors because it illustrates the performance of normal, ongoing operations. Operating earnings are determined by adjusting GAAP net income available to common stockholders for net realized capital gains and losses, as adjusted, and other after-tax adjustments the company believes are not indicative of overall operating trends. However, it is possible these adjusting items have occurred in the past and could recur in future reporting periods. Management uses non-GAAP measures for goal setting, as a basis for determining employee compensation, and evaluating performance on a basis comparable to that used by investors and securities analysts. About Principal® Principal helps people and companies around the world build, protect and advance their financial well-being through retirement, insurance and asset management solutions that fit their lives. Our employees are passionate about helping clients of all income and portfolio sizes achieve their goals — offering innovative ideas, investment expertise and real-life solutions to make financial progress possible. To find out more, visit us at Principal, Principal and symbol design and Principal Financial Group are trademarks and service marks of Principal Financial Services, Inc., a member of the Principal Financial Group. 1 Net revenue = operating revenues less benefits, claims and settlement expenses less dividends to policyholders. 2 Pre-tax return on net revenue = pre-tax operating earnings divided by net revenue. 3 Adjusted revenue = operating revenues less commission expense. 4 Pre-tax return on adjusted revenue = pre-tax operating earnings, adjusted for noncontrolling interest divided by adjusted revenue. 5 PI Combined net revenue is a non-GAAP financial measure. Combined basis = all Principal International companies at 100 percent. The company has determined combined net revenue (at PFG share) is more representative of underlying net revenue growth for Principal International as it reflects our proportionate share of consolidated and equity method subsidiaries. In addition, using this net revenue metric provides a more meaningful representation of our profit margins. The difference between combined net revenue (at PFG share) and pre-tax operating earnings is combined operating expenses (at PFG share). 6 Premium and fees = premiums and other considerations plus fees and other revenues. 7 Pre-tax return on premium and fees = pre-tax operating earnings divided by premium and fees. 8 Latin America utilizes Central Bank estimates, while Asia uses Bloomberg. 9 The operating earnings effective tax rate is a non-GAAP measure and differs from US GAAP net income effective tax rate primarily due to net realized capital gains and losses (NRCG).

The paper argues for the positive contributions adjunct faculty with practical experience would make by bringing their expertise into the classroom and in setting up linkages with industry. Unfortunately, adjuncts, often with proven records of excellent teaching, are marginalized by the academic systems in place today, and their contributions to the academic process are undervalued. Next, the paper reports on the success story of an adjunct, a practitioner with good credentials, who «teamed-up» with a «full-time» faculty in an attempt to bring the practice to 4thyear students in a geotechnical/foundation engineering class. The success achieved in meeting course objectives was largely attributed to proper planning and the effectiveness of the adjunct in the delivery of «practice-related» materials, and the adjunct's ability to engage students. The positive outcome of this experience has encouraged other full - time faculty members to search for practitioners - as adjuncts - to assist in bringing the practice into the classroom. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Gracer J.B.,Principal
Environmental Law and Management | Year: 2013

The article focuses on the US environmental matters, providing some perspective on what can be expected to take front stage in the future. The grass-roots environmental movement in the US is beginning to adopt that tone, creating significant bottom-up pressure on the President to act. President Obama has openly encouraged such pressure, stating that he will need to be pushed to take action. Recently there has been a major leadership transition at the US EPA. The former administrator, Lisa Jackson, who recently became Apple's first chief environmental officer, had strong environmental credentials and was a very forceful proponent of greenhouse gas regulation. Her replacement, Gina McCarthy, has a well deserved reputation as a moderate. She worked for Governor Romney and other Republican governors before coming to the EPA. Under the Clean Water Act, there are regulations addressing cooling water intake for coal plants and other industrial facilities. These could require costly cooling towers at many facilities, which could impact decisions concerning whether or not such plants are financially viable.

Sayeg P.,Principal | Bray D.,University of Queensland
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment | Year: 2012

Bus rapid transit (BRT) systems have been implemented in the last 30 years in Europe, Latin America, Oceania, United Kingdom, Asia, and North America to provide improved levels of public transport service. The associated benefits of reduced greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption have been increasingly recognized. The clean development mechanism (CDM) provides two approved methodologies for estimating and verifying reduced greenhouse gas emissions due to modal switch induced by BRT. However, the methods do not fully account for established transport sector experience on the complexities of forecasting and measuring the direct and induced changes in travel behavior. Incorporation of relevant experience from the transport sector would lead to improved methods for ex ante estimation of changes in emissions and energy consumption. Similarly, by focusing on the key factors that influence emissions and energy consumption, verification procedures could be made more relevant and efficient. Transport sector experience also indicates limitations in the approach used to derive the baseline case in the CDM methodologies (i.e., the situation that would have been the case without the project). Current CDM methodologies also do not distinguish between vehicle drivers and passengers when considering the impact of a switch from private vehicles, and do not adequately take account of the changes in location and travel behavior that could occur. These limitations, which are equally applicable to other rapid transit improvement projects, are reviewed, and examples are given of the extent of misestimation that could occur. Consideration is also given to improved methodologies. The benefits of learnings from the transport sector are illustrated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Connor I.,Principal
Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2012

The author inspected 18 racking installations at various food storage facilities in Christchurch for damage from the 4 th September 2010 Darfield Earthquake. The type of racking installations and damage suffered are listed with some photographs of specific damage. The damage ranged from minor to complete collapse with large product loss. Although inspection access was limited, the collapse mechanism for racking installations is assessed and suggested. The damage inspected indicated some variation in the application of design approaches and potential areas where the behaviour of rack structures may not have been fully understood during design. General conclusions are drawn from the damage inspections, and suggestions offered for the refinement and improvement of racking design approaches.

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