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Ames, IA, United States

The paper argues for the positive contributions adjunct faculty with practical experience would make by bringing their expertise into the classroom and in setting up linkages with industry. Unfortunately, adjuncts, often with proven records of excellent teaching, are marginalized by the academic systems in place today, and their contributions to the academic process are undervalued. Next, the paper reports on the success story of an adjunct, a practitioner with good credentials, who «teamed-up» with a «full-time» faculty in an attempt to bring the practice to 4thyear students in a geotechnical/foundation engineering class. The success achieved in meeting course objectives was largely attributed to proper planning and the effectiveness of the adjunct in the delivery of «practice-related» materials, and the adjunct's ability to engage students. The positive outcome of this experience has encouraged other full - time faculty members to search for practitioners - as adjuncts - to assist in bringing the practice into the classroom. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

Ballard C.,Principal | Garland N.,Director | Foreman J.,Senior Modelling Engineer
Irrigation and Drainage

The southern part of the Murray-Darling Basin covers parts of three States and all of the Australian Capital Territory. It supplies water to irrigators, towns and cities. Water sharing agreements between States have become more complex over time. 1997/1998 to 2009/2010 was dry, with average inflows about half the long term average. The drought led to examination of management policies, in particular: water allocation policies based on any design drought break down in a drought more severe than the design drought; it may not be possible to safeguard urban supplies under unprecedented conditions; water trade fails when 'river losses' to support the delivery of traded water cannot be met. In short the management policies required during severe drought may differ from those that are adequate in more normal times. The paper examines responses to drought at three levels: National - the National Government saw a need for a greater say in water resource management, constitutionally a State responsibility. Environmental versus irrigation demands became a hot topic; Regional - water sharing rules between States and individuals within States came under scrutiny; Local - irrigation practices, both delivering water to farms and efficiency on-farm can be improved, at a cost. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Metabolic profiling through targeted quantification of a predefined subset of metabolites, performed by mass spectrometric analytical techniques, allows detailed investigation of biological pathways and thus may provide information about the interaction of different organic systems, ultimately improving understanding of disease risk and prognosis in a variety of diseases. Early risk assessment, in turn, may improve patient management in regard to cite-of-care decisions and treatment modalities. Within this review, we focus on the potential of metabolic profiling to improve our pathophysiological understanding of disease and management of patients. We focus thereby on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an important disease responsible for high mortality, morbidity and costs worldwide. Observational data from numerous clinical and experimental studies have provided convincing data linking metabolic blood biomarkers such as lactate, glucose or cortisol to patient outcomes. Also, identified through metabolomic studies, novel innovative metabolic markers such as steroid hormones, biogenic amines, members of the oxidative status, sphingo- and glycerophospholipids, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) have shown promising results. Since many uncertainties remain in predicting mortality in these patients, further prospective and retrospective observational studies are needed to uncover metabolic pathways responsible for mortality associated with LRTI. Improved understanding of outcome-specific metabolite signatures in LRTIs may optimize patient management strategies, provide potential new targets for future individual therapy, and thereby improve patients' chances for survival. © 2015 Nickler et al. Source

Gracer J.B.,Principal
Environmental Law and Management

The article focuses on the US environmental matters, providing some perspective on what can be expected to take front stage in the future. The grass-roots environmental movement in the US is beginning to adopt that tone, creating significant bottom-up pressure on the President to act. President Obama has openly encouraged such pressure, stating that he will need to be pushed to take action. Recently there has been a major leadership transition at the US EPA. The former administrator, Lisa Jackson, who recently became Apple's first chief environmental officer, had strong environmental credentials and was a very forceful proponent of greenhouse gas regulation. Her replacement, Gina McCarthy, has a well deserved reputation as a moderate. She worked for Governor Romney and other Republican governors before coming to the EPA. Under the Clean Water Act, there are regulations addressing cooling water intake for coal plants and other industrial facilities. These could require costly cooling towers at many facilities, which could impact decisions concerning whether or not such plants are financially viable. Source

Sayeg P.,Principal | Bray D.,University of Queensland
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment

Bus rapid transit (BRT) systems have been implemented in the last 30 years in Europe, Latin America, Oceania, United Kingdom, Asia, and North America to provide improved levels of public transport service. The associated benefits of reduced greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption have been increasingly recognized. The clean development mechanism (CDM) provides two approved methodologies for estimating and verifying reduced greenhouse gas emissions due to modal switch induced by BRT. However, the methods do not fully account for established transport sector experience on the complexities of forecasting and measuring the direct and induced changes in travel behavior. Incorporation of relevant experience from the transport sector would lead to improved methods for ex ante estimation of changes in emissions and energy consumption. Similarly, by focusing on the key factors that influence emissions and energy consumption, verification procedures could be made more relevant and efficient. Transport sector experience also indicates limitations in the approach used to derive the baseline case in the CDM methodologies (i.e., the situation that would have been the case without the project). Current CDM methodologies also do not distinguish between vehicle drivers and passengers when considering the impact of a switch from private vehicles, and do not adequately take account of the changes in location and travel behavior that could occur. These limitations, which are equally applicable to other rapid transit improvement projects, are reviewed, and examples are given of the extent of misestimation that could occur. Consideration is also given to improved methodologies. The benefits of learnings from the transport sector are illustrated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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