Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton was the fourth chartered institution of higher education in the American colonies and thus one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, where it was renamed Princeton University in 1896. The present-day College of New Jersey in nearby Ewing Township, New Jersey, is an unrelated institution. Princeton had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but has never been affiliated with any denomination and today imposes no religious requirements on its students.Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social science, natural science, and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The University has tied with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. By endowment per student, Princeton is the wealthiest school in the United States.Princeton has been associated with 37 Nobel laureates, 17 National Medal of Science winners, two Abel Prize winners, eight Fields Medalists , nine Turing Award laureates, three National Humanities Medal recipients and 204 Rhodes Scholars. Wikipedia.
University of Virginia and Princeton University | Date: 2017-02-14
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.
Princeton University | Date: 2017-02-13
Passive components adapted for integration with at least one active semiconductor device, in an embodiment, comprise at least one metallic structure dimensioned and arranged to absorb and/or reflect a major fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation received at one or more wavelengths of a first group of wavelengths. This prevents radiation within the first group of wavelengths from being received and/or processed by the at least one active device. In an embodiment, one or more metallic structures are dimensioned and arranged to direct an amount of incident radiation, received at one or more wavelengths of a second group of wavelengths, sufficient to enable receiving or processing of incident radiation within the second group of wavelengths by the at least one active semiconductor device. In some embodiments, the passive component comprises a passive optical filter for use in spectroscopic applications, and the active semiconductor device is a detector or sensor.
Princeton University | Date: 2017-03-22
The invention relates to a method of depositing an organic material, whereina carrier gas carrying an organic material is ejecting from the nozzle at a flow velocity that is at least 10 % of the thermal velocity of the carrier gas, such that the organic material is deposited onto a substrate, and wherein a guard flow is provided around the carrier gas.
Princeton University | Date: 2017-01-18
The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photovoltaic devices, e.g., organic solar cells. Further, it is directed to an optimized organic solar cell comprising multiple stacked subcells in series. High power conversion efficiency are achieved by fabrication of a photovoltaic cell comprising multiple stacked subcells with thickness optimization and employing an electron blocking layer.
Princeton University and Hopkins Inc. | Date: 2017-01-18
The present invention relates to granular composite density enhancement, and related methods and compositions. The applications where these properties are valuable include but are not limited to: 1) additive manufacturing (3D printing) involving metallic, ceramic, cermet, polymer, plastic, or other dry or solvent-suspended powders or gels, 2) concrete materials, 3) solid propellant materials, 4) cermet materials, 5) granular armors, 6) glass-metal and glass-plastic mixtures, and 7) ceramics comprising (or manufactured using) granular composites.
Princeton University | Date: 2017-02-08
Methods described herein enable the production of numerous molecular species through decarboxylative cross-coupling via use of photoredox and transition metal catalysts. For example, methods described herein enable the production of numerous molecular species through decarboxylative cross-coupling via use of photoredox and transition metal catalysts. A method described herein, in some embodiments, comprises providing a reaction mixture including a photoredox catalyst, a transition metal catalyst, a coupling partner and a substrate having a carboxyl group. The reaction mixture is irradiated with a radiation source resulting in cross-coupling of the substrate and coupling partner via a mechanism including decarboxylation, wherein the coupling partner is selected from the group consisting of a substituted aromatic compound and a substituted aliphatic compound.
Princeton University | Date: 2017-05-03
In one aspect, a chelating phosphine-phosphonic diamide (PPDA) ligand is described herein for constructing transition metal complexes operable for catalysis of olefin polymerization, including copolymenzation of ethylene with polar monomer.
Parker N.F.,Princeton University
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2016
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain provide rich topographic innervation of the striatum and are central to learning and to generating actions. Despite the importance of this DA innervation, it remains unclear whether and how DA neurons are specialized on the basis of the location of their striatal target. Thus, we sought to compare the function of subpopulations of DA neurons that target distinct striatal subregions in the context of an instrumental reversal learning task. We identified key differences in the encoding of reward and choice in dopamine terminals in dorsal versus ventral striatum: DA terminals in ventral striatum responded more strongly to reward consumption and reward-predicting cues, whereas DA terminals in dorsomedial striatum responded more strongly to contralateral choices. In both cases the terminals encoded a reward prediction error. Our results suggest that the DA modulation of the striatum is spatially organized to support the specialized function of the targeted subregion. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Botvinick M.M.,Princeton University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2012
The hierarchical structure of human and animal behavior has been of critical interest in neuroscience for many years. Yet understanding the neural processes that give rise to such structure remains an open challenge. In recent research, a new perspective on hierarchical behavior has begun to take shape, inspired by ideas from machine learning, and in particular the framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning. Hierarchical reinforcement learning builds on traditional reinforcement learning mechanisms, extending them to accommodate temporally extended behaviors or subroutines. The resulting computational paradigm has begun to influence both theoretical and empirical work in neuroscience, conceptually aligning the study of hierarchical behavior with research on other aspects of learning and decision making, and giving rise to some thought-provoking new findings. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Burrows A.,Princeton University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013
Core-collapse theory brings together many facets of high-energy and nuclear astrophysics and the numerical arts to present theorists with one of the most important, yet frustrating, astronomical questions: "What is the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions?" A review of all the physics and the 50-year history involved would soon bury the reader in minutiae that could easily obscure the essential elements of the phenomenon, as we understand it today. Moreover, much remains to be discovered and explained, and a complicated review of an unresolved subject in flux could grow stale fast. Therefore, this paper describes various important facts and perspectives that may have escaped the attention of those interested in this puzzle. Furthermore, an attempt to describe the modern theory's physical underpinnings and a brief summary of the current state of play are given. In the process, a few myths that have crept into modern discourse are identified. However, there is much more to do and humility in the face of this age-old challenge is clearly the most prudent stance as its eventual resolution is sought. © 2013 American Physical Society.