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Princeton, NJ, United States

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton was the fourth chartered institution of higher education in the American colonies and thus one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, where it was renamed Princeton University in 1896. The present-day College of New Jersey in nearby Ewing Township, New Jersey, is an unrelated institution. Princeton had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but has never been affiliated with any denomination and today imposes no religious requirements on its students.Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social science, natural science, and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The University has tied with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. By endowment per student, Princeton is the wealthiest school in the United States.Princeton has been associated with 37 Nobel laureates, 17 National Medal of Science winners, two Abel Prize winners, eight Fields Medalists , nine Turing Award laureates, three National Humanities Medal recipients and 204 Rhodes Scholars. Wikipedia.

Burrows A.,Princeton University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

Core-collapse theory brings together many facets of high-energy and nuclear astrophysics and the numerical arts to present theorists with one of the most important, yet frustrating, astronomical questions: "What is the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions?" A review of all the physics and the 50-year history involved would soon bury the reader in minutiae that could easily obscure the essential elements of the phenomenon, as we understand it today. Moreover, much remains to be discovered and explained, and a complicated review of an unresolved subject in flux could grow stale fast. Therefore, this paper describes various important facts and perspectives that may have escaped the attention of those interested in this puzzle. Furthermore, an attempt to describe the modern theory's physical underpinnings and a brief summary of the current state of play are given. In the process, a few myths that have crept into modern discourse are identified. However, there is much more to do and humility in the face of this age-old challenge is clearly the most prudent stance as its eventual resolution is sought. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Stone H.A.,Princeton University
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Ice formation on surfaces and structures produces damage and inefficiencies that negatively impact all manners of activities. Not surprisingly, for a long time, an unmet challenge has been to design materials capable of minimizing or even eliminating the formation of ice on the surface of the material. In recent years, there were significant efforts to develop such ice-phobic surfaces by building on the advances made with superhydrophobic materials since these, by definition, tend to repel water. However, a robust response includes the ability to deter the formation of ice when a substrate colder than the freezing temperature is exposed either to impacting water droplets or water vapor (i.e., frost formation). In the latter case, superhydrophobic surfaces in high humidity conditions were shown to allow significant ice accumulation. Consequently, a new design idea was needed. In this issue of ACS Nano, it is shown how a liquid-infiltrated porous solid, where the liquid strongly wets and is retained within the material, has many of the properties desired for an ice-phobic substrate. The composite material exhibits low contact angle hysteresis so only small forces are needed to provoke droplets to slide off of a cold substrate. This new slippery surface shows many characteristics required for ice-phobicity, and a method is demonstrated for applying this kind of material as a coating on aluminum. Ice may have met its match. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Drozdov I.K.,Princeton University
Nature Physics | Year: 2014

The hallmark of a topologically insulating state of matter in two dimensions protected by time-reversal symmetry is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Among the first systems predicted to be a two-dimensional topological insulator are bilayers of bismuth. Here we report scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments on bulk Bi crystals that show that a subset of the predicted Bi-bilayers' edge states are decoupled from the states of the substrate and provide direct spectroscopic evidence of their one-dimensional nature. Moreover, by visualizing the quantum interference of edge-mode quasi-particles in confined geometries, we demonstrate their remarkable coherent propagation along the edge with scattering properties consistent with strong suppression of backscattering as predicted for the propagating topological edge states. Source

Hasan M.Z.,Princeton University | Kane C.L.,University of Pennsylvania
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. These states are possible due to the combination of spin-orbit interactions and time-reversal symmetry. The two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator is a quantum spin Hall insulator, which is a close cousin of the integer quantum Hall state. A three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator supports novel spin-polarized 2D Dirac fermions on its surface. In this Colloquium the theoretical foundation for topological insulators and superconductors is reviewed and recent experiments are described in which the signatures of topological insulators have been observed. Transport experiments on HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are described that demonstrate the existence of the edge states predicted for the quantum spin Hall insulator. Experiments on Bi1_xSbx, Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 are then discussed that establish these materials as 3D topological insulators and directly probe the topology of their surface states. Exotic states are described that can occur at the surface of a 3D topological insulator due to an induced energy gap. A magnetic gap leads to a novel quantum Hall state that gives rise to a topological magnetoelectric effect. A superconducting energy gap leads to a state that supports Majorana fermions and may provide a new venue for realizing proposals for topological quantum computation. Prospects for observing these exotic states are also discussed, as well as other potential device applications of topological insulators. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source

Harlow D.,Princeton University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2016

These lectures give an introduction to the quantum physics of black holes, including recent developments based on quantum information theory such as the firewall paradox and its various cousins. An introduction is also given to holography and the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, focusing on those aspects which are relevant for the black hole information problem. © 2016 American Physical Society. Source

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