Princeton, NJ, United States
Princeton, NJ, United States

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton was the fourth chartered institution of higher education in the American colonies and thus one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, where it was renamed Princeton University in 1896. The present-day College of New Jersey in nearby Ewing Township, New Jersey, is an unrelated institution. Princeton had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but has never been affiliated with any denomination and today imposes no religious requirements on its students.Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social science, natural science, and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The University has tied with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. By endowment per student, Princeton is the wealthiest school in the United States.Princeton has been associated with 37 Nobel laureates, 17 National Medal of Science winners, two Abel Prize winners, eight Fields Medalists , nine Turing Award laureates, three National Humanities Medal recipients and 204 Rhodes Scholars. Wikipedia.

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Princeton University and Rutgers University | Date: 2016-08-22

The American Cancer Society estimated that in 2009, 1,479,350 new cancer cases would be diagnosed in the United States of which 219,440 would be lung and bronchus related. The standard treatments for NSCLC include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, laser and photodynamic therapy, all with various success rates depending on the stage of the cancer. National Cancer Institute assesses, however, that results of standard treatment are generally poor with only a 15 percent 5-year survival rate for combined cancer stages. Challenges facing the current chemotherapy drugs include excessive toxicity to healthy tissues and limited ability to prevent metastases. A dual drug delivery system described herein selectively targets the lung to deliver anti-cancer drugs and inhibit the formation of metastases.

Princeton University | Date: 2016-08-15

Microbial infections have become increasingly difficult to treat due to the emergence of drug resistant microbes. Adjunctive therapies can be used to better treat resistant microbes, where multiple drugs are concurrently used to overcome resistant mechanisms and to synergistically treat infections. The practice of adjunctive therapies is limited by the ability to precisely control the pharmacokinetic profiles of the multiple actives. Composite particle-based approaches to enable and enhance adjunctive antimicrobial infections by simultaneous encapsulation and delivery of all components are described herein.

Princeton University | Date: 2016-11-29

Functionalized graphene sheets having a carbon to oxygen molar ratio of at least about 23:1 and method of preparing the same.

The present invention provides compositions and methods for programming mammalian cells to perform desired functions. In particular, the present invention provides compositions and methods for programming stem cells to differentiate into a desired cell type. A quorum sensing systems that regulates the expression of cell fate regulators is introduced into mammalian host cells, such as stem cells. The quorum sensing systems generally comprises vectors that express the components of a bacterial quorum sensing pathway, including proteins which catalyze the synthesis of an autoinducer and a gene encoding a regulatory partner of the autoinducer, and vectors in which genes encoding cell fate regulators are operably linked to a promoter induced by the autoinducer/regulatory partner complex. The system can also comprise vectors in which genes encoding additional cell fate regulators are operably linked to a promoter that is induced by a factor synthesized in response to a first stage of differentiation, so that a second stage of differentiation is triggered.

Nanochannel arrays that enable high-throughput macromolecular analysis are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of preparing nanochannel arrays and nanofluidic chips. Methods of analyzing macromolecules, such as entire strands of genomic DNA, are also disclosed, as well as systems for carrying out these methods.

Princeton University | Date: 2015-02-25

Polymer nanoparticles, including Janus nanoparticles, and methods of making them are described.

The invention includes microfluidic methods and devices that allow for the continuous production of microfibers with embedded droplets aligned along the length of the fiber at specific positions. The invention allows for formation of single or multiple emulsions within a fiber. The various phases comprised within the fiber can vary in terms of in terms of hydrophobic/hydrophilic character, solid/fluid, or gel crosslink density, which allows for the introduction of heterogeneous microenvironments within the fiber, each of which with distinct solubility characteristics, permeability, and mechanical properties. Various compounds and materials can be encapsulated in the different microcompartments of the fiber for storage and delivery applications, as well as to provide multifunctionality to the fiber structure. The disclosed structures have a broad range of potential applications, for example as engineered substrates with controlled release profiles of multiple compounds for tissue engineering (such as a tissue scaffold, for example) and bioengineering applications.

Princeton University | Date: 2016-08-29

In one aspect, metal oxide compositions having electronic structure of multiple band gaps are described. In some embodiments, a metal oxide composition comprises a (Co,Ni)O alloy having electronic structure including multiple band gaps. The (Co,Ni)O alloy can include a first band gap and a second band gap, the first band gap separating valence and conduction bands of the electronic structure.

Princeton University | Date: 2016-10-21

A system for time deferred usage of mobile data by a plurality of user devices each coupled to a network server and running one or more applications. The system includes a network measurement module, user profiling module and a price-optimization computational module located at the network server and a user interface module located at each user device. The network measurement module collects traffic data from each of the applications to generate the historical congestion data and current congestion data. The user profiling module is configured to receive user reaction data and determine how much mobile data for each application may be deferred to a later point in time to generate the predicted user reaction data. The price-optimization receives the historical congestion data and the current network congestion data from the network measurement module and the predicted user reaction data from the user profiling module and generate day-ahead time-dependent price data for a plurality of upcoming timeslots of mobile data based on the historical congestion data, current network congestion, predicted user reaction data, network operator costs for data exceeding maximum network capacity and network operator costs for supplying data in less-congested time periods. The user interface receives a time interval based delay selection input for each of the one or more applications, select one or more of the upcoming data timeslots of mobile data for use by the one or more applications and delay mobile data usage by each of the one or more applications based on the delay selection input.

The invention provides an article of manufacture, and methods of designing and making the article. The article permits or prohibits waves of energy, especially photonic/electromagnetic energy, to propagate through it, depending on the energy band gaps built into it. The structure of the article may be reduced to a pattern of points having a hyperuniform distribution. The point-pattern may exhibit a crystalline symmetry, a quasicrystalline symmetry or may be aperiodic. In some embodiments, the point pattern exhibits no long-range order. Preferably, the point-pattern is isotropic. In all embodiments, the article has a complete, TE- and TM-optimized band-gap. The extraordinary transmission phenomena found in the disordered hyperuniform photonic structures of the invention find use in optical micro-circuitry (all-optical, electronic or thermal switching of the transmission), near-field optical probing, thermophotovoltaics, and energy-efficient incandescent sources.

Princeton University | Date: 2016-08-12

Provided among other things are a scanning electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, focused ion beam microscope, ion beam micromachining device, or scanning probe nanofabrication device, wherein the microscope or device is configured to move a substrate and a scanning modality relative to one another with an enclosed sinusoidal trajectory, and methods of operation.

A photonic beamformer is disclosed and is configured to transmit or receive a plurality of RF input signals from a plurality of antennas. The beamformer receiver includes a plurality of optical modulators, each optical modulator being configured to modulate each of the RF input signals onto an optical carrier, each carrier having a different wavelength. The beamformer receiver also includes a plurality of optical amplifiers, each optical amplifier being configured to vary the optical power of one optical carrier based on a weighting input and generate a weighted optical carrier. The beamformer receiver also includes a plurality of multi-beam optical true-time delays (TTD), each TTD being configured to receive all of the weighted optical carriers and generate a plurality time delayed optical carriers. The beamformer receiver also includes a plurality of detectors configured to detect each of the plurality time delayed optical carriers and generate an electrical signal that represents each of the plurality of received RF input signals.

Princeton University and Vorbeck Materials Corp. | Date: 2016-10-17

Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

The invention relates to a method of depositing an organic material, whereina carrier gas carrying an organic material is ejecting from the nozzle at a flow velocity that is at least 10 % of the thermal velocity of the carrier gas, such that the organic material is deposited onto a substrate, and wherein a guard flow is provided around the carrier gas.

Princeton University | Date: 2017-01-18

The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photovoltaic devices, e.g., organic solar cells. Further, it is directed to an optimized organic solar cell comprising multiple stacked subcells in series. High power conversion efficiency are achieved by fabrication of a photovoltaic cell comprising multiple stacked subcells with thickness optimization and employing an electron blocking layer.

Princeton University and Hopkins Inc. | Date: 2017-01-18

The present invention relates to granular composite density enhancement, and related methods and compositions. The applications where these properties are valuable include but are not limited to: 1) additive manufacturing (3D printing) involving metallic, ceramic, cermet, polymer, plastic, or other dry or solvent-suspended powders or gels, 2) concrete materials, 3) solid propellant materials, 4) cermet materials, 5) granular armors, 6) glass-metal and glass-plastic mixtures, and 7) ceramics comprising (or manufactured using) granular composites.

Pajer E.,Princeton University | Zaldarriaga M.,Institute for Advanced Study
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We know very little about primordial curvature perturbations on scales smaller than about a Mpc. Measurements of the μ distortion of the cosmic microwave background spectrum provide the unique opportunity to probe these scales over the unexplored range from 50 to 104Mpc -1. This is a very clean probe, in that it relies only on well understood linear evolution. Also, just the information about the low multipoles (l∼100) of μ is necessary. We point out that correlations between μ distortion and temperature anisotropies can be used to test Gaussianity at these very small scales. In particular the μT two-point correlation is proportional to the very squeezed limit of the primordial bispectrum and hence measures fNLloc, while μμ is proportional to the primordial trispectrum and measures τ NL. We present a Fisher matrix forecast of the observational constraints on fNLloc and stress that a cosmic variance limited experiment could in principle reach ΔfNLloc∼O(10 -3). © 2012 American Physical Society.

Nelson J.,Institute for Advanced Study | Nguyen H.L.,Princeton University
Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing | Year: 2013

We give near-tight lower bounds for the sparsity required in several dimensionality reducing linear maps. First, consider the Johnson-Lindenstrauss (JL) lemma which states that for any set of n vectors in Rd there is an A ∈ Rm×d with m = O(ε-2 log n) such that mapping by A preserves the pairwise Euclidean distances up to a 1 ε factor1. We show there exists a set of n vectors such that any such A with at most s non-zero entries per column must have s = Ω(ε-1 log n/ log(1/ε)) if m < Ω(n/ log(1/ε)). This improves the lower bound of Ω(min{ε-2; ε-1√ log m d}) by [Dasgupta- Kumar-Sarlós, STOC 2010], which only held against the stronger property of distributional JL, and only against a certain restricted class of distributions. Meanwhile our lower bound is against the JL lemma itself, with no restrictions. Our lower bound matches the sparse JL upper bound of [Kane-Nelson, SODA 2012] up to an O(log(1/ε)) factor. Next, we show that any m×n matrix with the k-restricted isometry property (RIP) with constant distortion must haveΩ (k log(n/k)) non-zeroes per column if m = O(k log(n/k)), the optimal number of rows for RIP, and k < n/ polylog n. This improves the previous lower bound of (min{k; n/m}) by [Chandar, 2010] and shows that for most k it is impossible to have a sparse RIP matrix with an optimal number of rows. Both lower bounds above also offer a tradeoff between sparsity and the number of rows. Lastly, we show that any oblivious distribution over subspace embedding matrices with 1 non-zero per column and preserving distances in a d dimensional-subspace up to a constant factor must have at least Ω(d2) rows. This matches an upper bound in [Nelson-Nguyen, arXiv abs/1211.1002] and shows the impossibility of obtaining the best of both of constructions in that work, namely 1 non-zero per column and d · polylog d rows. Copyright 2013 ACM.

Braverman M.,Princeton University | Moitra A.,Institute for Advanced Study
Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing | Year: 2013

We prove an unconditional lower bound that any linear pro- gram that achieves an O(n1-ε) approximation for clique has size 2 Ω(n-ε). There has been considerable recent interest in proving unconditional lower bounds against any linear pro- gram. Fiorini et al. [13] proved that there is no polyno- mial sized linear program for traveling salesman. Braun et al. [7] proved that there is no polynomial sized O(n 1/2-ε)- approximate linear program for clique. Here we prove an optimal and unconditional lower bound against linear pro- grams for clique that matches Håstad's [15] celebrated hard- ness result. Interestingly, the techniques used to prove such lower bounds have closely followed the progression of tech- niques used in communication complexity. Here we develop an information theoretic framework to approach these ques- tions, and we use it to prove our main result. Also we resolve a related question: How many bits of communication are needed to get ε-advantage over random guessing for disjointness? Kalyanasundaram and Schnitger [18] proved that a protocol that gets constant advantage re- quires (n) bits of communication. This result in conjunc- tion with amplification implies that any protocol that gets ε-advantage requires Ω(ε2n) bits of communication. Here we improve this bound to Ω (εn), which is optimal for any > 0. Copyright 2013 ACM.

Maldacena J.,Institute for Advanced Study | Zhiboedov A.,Princeton University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013

We consider three-dimensional conformal field theories that have a higher spin symmetry that is slightly broken. The theories have a large-N limit in the sense that the operators separate into single trace and multitrace and obey the usual large-N factorization properties. We assume that the spectrum of single trace operators is similar to the one that one obtains in the Vasiliev theories. Namely the only single trace operators are the higher spin currents plus an additional scalar. The anomalous dimensions of the higher spin currents are of the order 1/N. Using the slightly broken higher spin symmetry, we constrain the three-point functions of the theories to a leading order in N. We show that there are two families of solutions. One family can be realized as a theory of N fermions with an O(N) Chern-Simons gauge field, the other as an N bosons plus the Chern-Simons gauge field. The family of solutions is parametrized by the 't Hooft coupling. At special parity preserving points, we obtain the critical O(N) models: the Wilson-Fisher one and the Gross-Neveu one. Our analysis also fixes the on-shell three-point functions of Vasiliev's theory on AdS4 or dS4. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Devakul T.,Princeton University | Singh R.R.P.,University of California at Davis
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We introduce the numerical linked cluster expansion as a controlled numerical tool for the study of the many-body localization transition in a disordered system with continuous nonperturbative disorder. Our approach works directly in the thermodynamic limit, in any spatial dimension, and does not rely on any finite size scaling procedure. We study the onset of many-body delocalization through the breakdown of area-law entanglement in a generic many-body eigenstate. By looking for initial signs of an instability of the localized phase, we obtain a value for the critical disorder, which we believe should be a lower bound for the true value, that is higher than current best estimates from finite size studies. This implies that most current methods tend to overestimate the extent of the localized phase due to finite size effects making the localized phase appear stable at small length scales. We also study the mobility edge in these systems as a function of energy density, and we find that our conclusion is the same at all examined energies. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Lewkowycz A.,Princeton University | Maldacena J.,Institute for Advanced Study
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We consider classical Euclidean gravity solutions with a boundary. The boundary contains a non-contractible circle. These solutions can be interpreted as computing the trace of a density matrix in the full quantum gravity theory, in the classical approximation. When the circle is contractible in the bulk, we argue that the entropy of this density matrix is given by the area of a minimal surface. This is a generalization of the usual black hole entropy formula to euclidean solutions without a Killing vector. A particular example of this set up appears in the computation of the entanglement entropy of a subregion of a field theory with a gravity dual. In this context, the minimal area prescription was proposed by Ryu and Takayanagi. Our arguments explain their conjecture. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.95K | Year: 2012

This STTR phase I project aims to develop a novel material system for muti-Watt level, Room Temperature 3.0 to 3.5 micron Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) utilizing our state-of-art in house Mod Gen II molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. Due to their bi-polar nature and the exponentially increasing nature of Auger process with wavelength, laser diodes (LDs) has failed to demonstrate high performance short wavelength mid-IR lasing. On the other hand, due to the uni-polar nature, QCLs have shown excellent performance in the range of 4.5 micron and longer wavelength. With the help of InGaAs/AlInAs/InP material system, 3.4 W lasing at 4.8 micron is obtained operating at RT in CW mode. However, due to the conduction band offset (CBO) limitation, this material system cannot offer Watt-level lasers shorter than near 4.5 micron. To make up the vacancy of high performance short wavelength mid-IR semiconductor lasers, We propose an new approach that will enable muti-Watt level, Room Temperature 3.0 to 3.5 micron QCLs. In Phase I, we will demonstrate QCLs operating in pulsed mode. In Phase II, we will optimize the design and parameter to realize Watt-level QCLs operating in the wavelength range of 3.0 to 3.5 micron at RT.

Papenfort K.,Princeton University | Papenfort K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Vanderpool C.K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2015

Bacterial small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are commonly known to repress gene expression by base pairing to target mRNAs. In many cases, sRNAs base pair with and sequester mRNA ribosome-binding sites, resulting in translational repression and accelerated transcript decay. In contrast, a growing number of examples of translational activation and mRNA stabilization by sRNAs have now been documented. A given sRNA often employs a conserved region to interact with and regulate both repressed and activated targets. However, the mechanisms underlying activation differ substantially from repression. Base pairing resulting in target activation can involve sRNA interactions with the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the coding sequence or the 3' UTR of the target mRNAs. Frequently, the activities of protein factors such as cellular ribonucleases and the RNA chaperone Hfq are required for activation. Bacterial sRNAs, including those that function as activators, frequently control stress response pathways or virulence-associated functions required for immediate responses to changing environments. This review aims to summarize recent advances in knowledge regarding target mRNA activation by bacterial sRNAs, highlighting the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance of regulation. © 2015 FEMS.

Korennykh A.,Princeton University | Walter P.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Walter P.,University of California at San Francisco
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a network of intracellular signaling pathways that maintain the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells. Dedicated molecular sensors embedded in the ER membrane detect incompletely folded or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen and activate a transcriptional program that increases the abundance of the ER according to need. In metazoans the UPR additionally regulates translation and thus relieves unfolded protein load by globally reducing protein synthesis. If homeostasis in the ER cannot be reestablished, the metazoan UPR switches from the prosurvival to the apoptotic mode. The UPR involves a complex, coordinated action of many genes that is controlled by one ER-embedded sensor, Ire1, in yeasts, and three sensors, Ire1, PERK, and ATF6, in higher eukaryotes, including human. We discuss the emerging molecular understanding of the UPR and focus on the structural biology of Ire1 and PERK, the two recently crystallized UPR sensors. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Kim P.,Princeton University | Abkarian M.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Stone H.A.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

Mechanical instabilities that cause periodic wrinkling during compression of layered materials find applications in stretchable electronics and microfabrication, but can also limit an application™s performance owing to delamination or cracking under loading and surface inhomogeneities during swelling. In particular, because of curvature localization, finite deformations can cause wrinkles to evolve into folds. The wrinkle-to-fold transition has been documented in several systems, mostly under uniaxial stress. However, the nucleation, the spatial structure and the dynamics of the invasion of folds in two-dimensional stress configurations remain elusive. Here, using a two-layer polymeric system under biaxial compressive stress, we show that a repetitive wrinkle-to-fold transition generates a hierarchical network of folds during reorganization of the stress field. The folds delineate individual domains, and each domain subdivides into smaller ones over multiple generations. By modifying the boundary conditions and geometry, we demonstrate control over the final network morphology. The ideas introduced here should find application in the many situations where stress impacts two-dimensional pattern formation. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Leslie S.-J.,Princeton University | Cimpian A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Meyer M.,Otterbein University | Freeland E.,Princeton University
Science | Year: 2015

The gender imbalance in STEM subjects dominates current debates about women's underrepresentation in academia. However, women are well represented at the Ph.D. level in some sciences and poorly represented in some humanities (e.g., in 2011, 54% of U.S. Ph. D.'s in molecular biology were women versus only 31% in philosophy). We hypothesize that, across the academic spectrum, women are underrepresented in fields whose practitioners believe that raw, innate talent is the main requirement for success, because women are stereotyped as not possessing such talent. This hypothesis extends to African Americans' underrepresentation as well, as this group is subject to similar stereotypes. Results from a nationwide survey of academics support our hypothesis (termed the field-specific ability beliefs hypothesis) over three competing hypotheses. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

Yao Y.,Harvard University | Hoffman A.J.,University of Notre Dame | Gmachl C.F.,Princeton University
Nature Photonics | Year: 2012

Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers are semiconductor injection lasers whose active core implements a multiple-quantum-well structure. Relying on a designed staircase of intersubband transitions allows free choice of emission wavelength and, in contrast with diode lasers, a low transparency point that is similar to a classical, atomic four-level laser system. In recent years, this design flexibility has expanded the achievable wavelength range of quantum cascade lasers to ∼3-25 μm and the terahertz regime, and provided exemplary improvements in overall performance. Quantum cascade lasers are rapidly becoming practical mid-infrared sources for a variety of applications such as trace-chemical sensing, health monitoring and infrared countermeasures. In this Review we focus on the two major areas of recent improvement: power and power efficiency, and spectral performance. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Paeschke K.,Princeton University | Capra J.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Zakian V.A.,Princeton University
Cell | Year: 2011

G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures are extremely stable four-stranded secondary structures held together by noncanonical G-G base pairs. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine the in vivo binding sites of the multifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 DNA helicase, a potent unwinder of G4 structures in vitro. G4 motifs were a significant subset of the high-confidence Pif1-binding sites. Replication slowed in the vicinity of these motifs, and they were prone to breakage in Pif1-deficient cells, whereas non-G4 Pif1-binding sites did not show this behavior. Introducing many copies of G4 motifs caused slow growth in replication-stressed Pif1-deficient cells, which was relieved by spontaneous mutations that eliminated their ability to form G4 structures, bind Pif1, slow DNA replication, and stimulate DNA breakage. These data suggest that G4 structures form in vivo and that they are resolved by Pif1 to prevent replication fork stalling and DNA breakage. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Foundation University, Princeton University and University of Oxford | Date: 2015-05-28

Embodiments of the present disclosure provide magneto-spinning apparatus, methods of use, magnetospun material (e.g., a fiber such as a low- or non-magnetic fiber), and the like.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2010.1.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 9.56M | Year: 2011

CARBOCHANGE will provide the best possible process-based quantification of net ocean carbon uptake under changing climate conditions using past and present ocean carbon cycle changes for a better prediction of future ocean carbon uptake. We will improve the quantitative understanding of key biogeochemical and physical processes through a combination of observations and models. We will upscale new process understanding to large-scale integrative feedbacks of the ocean carbon cycle to climate change and rising carbon dioxide concentrations. We will quantify the vulnerability of the ocean carbon sources and sinks in a probabilistic sense using cutting edge coupled Earth system models under a spectrum of emission scenarios including climate stabilisation scenarios as required for the 5th IPCC assessment report. The drivers for the vulnerabilities will be identified. The most actual observations of the changing ocean carbon sink will be systematically integrated with the newest ocean carbon models, a coupled land-ocean model, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, and fully fledged Earth system models through a spectrum of data assimilation methods as well as advanced performance assessment tools. Results will be optimal process descriptions and most realistic error margins for future ocean carbon uptake quantifications with models under the presently available observational evidence. The project will deliver calibrated future evolutions of ocean pH and carbonate saturation as required by the research community on ocean acidification in the EU project EPOCA and further projects in this field. The time history of atmosphere-ocean carbon fluxes past, present, and future will be synthesised globally as well as regionally for the transcontinental RECCAP project. Observations and model results will merge into GEOSS/GEO through links with the European coordination action COCOS and will prepare the marine branch of the European Research Infrastructure ICOS.

Khoury J.,University of Pennsylvania | Steinhardt P.J.,Princeton University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The Universe can be made flat and smooth by undergoing a phase of ultraslow (ekpyrotic) contraction, a condition achievable with a single, canonical scalar field and conventional general relativity. It has been argued, though, that generating scale-invariant density perturbations requires at least two scalar fields and a two-step process that first produces entropy fluctuations and then converts them to curvature perturbations. In this Letter we identify a loophole in the argument and introduce an ekpyrotic model based on a single, canonical scalar field that generates nearly scale-invariant curvature fluctuations through a purely "adiabatic mechanism" in which the background evolution is a dynamical attractor. The resulting spectrum can be slightly red with distinctive non-Gaussian fluctuations. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Hasan M.Z.,Princeton University | Kane C.L.,University of Pennsylvania
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. These states are possible due to the combination of spin-orbit interactions and time-reversal symmetry. The two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator is a quantum spin Hall insulator, which is a close cousin of the integer quantum Hall state. A three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator supports novel spin-polarized 2D Dirac fermions on its surface. In this Colloquium the theoretical foundation for topological insulators and superconductors is reviewed and recent experiments are described in which the signatures of topological insulators have been observed. Transport experiments on HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are described that demonstrate the existence of the edge states predicted for the quantum spin Hall insulator. Experiments on Bi1_xSbx, Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 are then discussed that establish these materials as 3D topological insulators and directly probe the topology of their surface states. Exotic states are described that can occur at the surface of a 3D topological insulator due to an induced energy gap. A magnetic gap leads to a novel quantum Hall state that gives rise to a topological magnetoelectric effect. A superconducting energy gap leads to a state that supports Majorana fermions and may provide a new venue for realizing proposals for topological quantum computation. Prospects for observing these exotic states are also discussed, as well as other potential device applications of topological insulators. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Princeton University, French National Center for Scientific Research, University of Rennes 1 and University of Oxford | Date: 2014-01-30

Disclosed is a process and device allowing for fast measurements of the physicochemical properties of amphiphiles (lipids, surfactants, soaps, . . . ). A Marangoni flow is created and characterized using amphiphiles to be characterized. The observed flow is characterized, and using the disclosed process, one can deduce from this measurement many important physicochemical parameters of the amphiphiles such as their critical micellar concentration. Compared to existing techniques, the disclosed process offers the advantage that it requires a single experiment to deduce the parameters, when other techniques (pendant drop method, conductometry, etc . . . ) require the measurement of a quantity (interfacial tension, conductometry) against a systematically varied parameter (amphiphile concentration, . . . ). The disclosed process and devices are ideal to characterize and/or screen rapidly amphiphiles molecules based on their interaction with a solvent.

Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 224.98K | Year: 2016

The rate of climate change in the Arctic is larger than elsewhere on Earth. The Arctic has unique and complex couplings and feedbacks between the surface and the atmosphere that in turn modify the radiative balance there differently than elsewhere. Current understanding holds that an increase in downwelling long wave radiative flux, driven by increased water vapor and clouds, may be accelerating climate change. There is a need to measure the thermodynamic state (water vapor, temperature and pressure) of the Arctic troposphere. A new compact sensor payload deployed on a small Unmanned Aircraft System is an efficient route to providing the data needed to advance our understanding. The overall objective of the Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a compact sensor payload to make high precision measurements of water vapor from a small unmanned aircraft. The payload is based on a diode laser optical absorption sensor and sensitive detection technology. The feasibility will be evaluated through signal modeling, engineering design, and laboratory experiments. In the Phase I program, a design will be developed for a flight- worthy, compact sensor with the precision and accuracy required for the target measurements and that will be deployable on a small unmanned aircraft system. Laboratory experiments will demonstrate the required measurement precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. In the Phase II program, a prototype sensor will be fabricated, tested, and field demonstrated. Predictions of global climate change rely on models incorporating precise knowledge of greenhouse gases such as H2O and clouds. Measurements using the high sensitivity instrument for monitoring water vapor that this program will develop can be used to decrease the uncertainties that still remain. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The proposed airborne sensor will enable measurements of water vapor on a wider scale and at higher frequencies than are possible now. This is especially important in monitoring climate change in the Arctic. The larger database from more frequent studies will directly benefit the goals of DoE’s Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring program’s effort to create climate monitoring facilities on the North Slope of Alaska in support of the climate science goals of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division. The basic sensor platform will be adaptable to applications requiring sensitive measurement of trace gases where sensor robustness and size are critical to performance, such as monitoring networks for greenhouse gases.

Princeton Satellite Systems and Princeton University | Date: 2013-05-10

A system and method for producing and controlling high thrust and desirable specific impulse from a continuous fusion reaction is disclosed. The resultant relatively small rocket engine will have lower cost to develop, test, and operate that the prior art, allowing spacecraft missions throughout the planetary system and beyond. The rocket engine method and system includes a reactor chamber and a heating system produce fusion reactions the stable plasma. Magnets produce a magnetic field that confines the stable plasma. A fuel injection system and a propellant injection system are included. Cold propellant into a gas box for converting a cold propellant into a warm propellant plasma at one end of the reactor chamber. The propellant and fusion products are directed out of the reactor chamber through a magnetic nozzle and are detached from the magnetic field lines producing thrust.

Schwarzbauer J.E.,Princeton University | DeSimone D.W.,University of Virginia
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2011

Fibronectin (FN) is a multidomain protein with the ability to bind simultaneously to cell surface receptors, collagen, proteoglycans, and other FN molecules. Many of these domains and interactions are also involved in the assembly of FN dimers into a multimeric fibrillar matrix. When, where, and how FN binds to its various partners must be controlled and coordinated during fibrillogenesis. Steps in the process of FN fibrillogenesis including FN self-association, receptor activities, and intracellular pathways have been under intense investigation for years. In this review, the domain organization of FN including the extra domains and variable region that are controlled by alternative splicing are described. We discuss how FN-FN and cell-FN interactions play essential roles in the initiation and progression of matrix assembly using complementary results from cell culture and embryonic model systems that have enhanced our understanding of this process. © 2011 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Sourjik V.,University of Heidelberg | Wingreen N.S.,Princeton University
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Chemotaxis allows bacteria to follow gradients of nutrients and other environmental stimuli. The bacterium Escherichia coli performs chemotaxis via a run-and-tumble strategy in which sensitive temporal comparisons lead to a biased random walk, with longer runs in the preferred gradient direction. The chemotaxis network of E. coli has developed over the years into one of the most thoroughly studied model systems for signal transduction and behavior, yielding general insights into such properties of cellular networks as signal amplification, signal integration, and robustness. Despite its relative simplicity, the operation of the E. coli chemotaxis network is highly refined and evolutionarily optimized at many levels. For example, recent studies revealed that the network adjusts its signaling properties dependent on the extracellular environment, apparently to optimize chemotaxis under particular conditions. The network can even utilize potentially detrimental stochastic fluctuations in protein levels and reaction rates to maximize the chemotactic performance of the population. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ju Y.,Princeton University | Maruta K.,Tohoku University
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2011

The high energy density of hydrocarbon fuels creates a great opportunity to develop combustion based micro-power generation systems to meet increasing demands for portable power devices, micro unmanned aerial vehicles, micro-satellite thrusters, and micro chemical reactors and sensors. In this paper, the recent technological development of micro-power systems and progress in fundamental understanding of micro-scale combustion are reviewed. At first, micro-scale combustion regimes are categorized by using different physical and chemical length and time scales and the resulting non-dimensional parameters and their correlations to various combustion regimes for micro and mesoscale combustion are discussed. Secondly, the recent successful developments and technical challenges of micro-thrusters, micro internal combustion engines, and micro chemical reactors summarized. Thirdly, the underlying fundamental mechanisms and ignition and flame dynamics in micro-scale combustion are reviewed, respectively, in premixed, non-premixed, catalytic, and non-equilibrium, micro-scale combustion systems. The conventional concepts of combustion limits such as the flammability limit, quenching diameter, and flame extinction and heat recirculation are revisited. The unique thermal and chemical transport mechanisms such as flame structure interaction, radical quenching, non-equilibrium transport appearing in micro-scale combustion are discussed. New flame regimes and instabilities such as flame bifurcation, weak flames, flame cells/streets, thermal and kinetic quenching, flameless low temperature catalytic combustion, repetitive extinction and ignition, spinning flames, spiral and multi-branched flames, symmetric and asymmetric oscillating flames are discussed. Finally, an overview of future research and conclusion are made. The goal of this review is to present an overview of the development of micro-power generators by focusing more on the advance in fundamental understanding of micro-scale combustion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Schlom D.G.,Cornell University | Pfeiffer L.N.,Princeton University
Nature Materials | Year: 2010

The technological advancements have made it possible to fabricate silicon and other mainstream semiconductors to purities of 99.999999% and grow single crystals up to 40 cm in diameter that are free from dislocations. The electrical transport becomes a more sensitive test of cleanliness for materials with such a high perfection than any structural or chemical characterization. Electrical cleanliness is measured by the mobility of the charge carriers in the material. Defects such as impurities and dislocations can be minimized in high-quality crystals, but dopants are needed to provide the mobile electrons and those dopants themselves severely limit the mobility. Three different approaches have been used with semiconductors to make two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sufficiently clean for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) observations. The first approach is, modulation-doping, the route to GaAs, AlAs and SiGe 2DEG and another approach is 'field-effect' doping, applied to silicon and graphene, and last approach is 'polarization doping', which produces the 2DEG in GaN.

Mueller P.A.,Princeton University | Oppenheimer D.M.,University of California at Los Angeles
Psychological Science | Year: 2014

Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning. © The Author(s) 2014.

Princeton University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology Beijing | Date: 2015-08-18

Emulsion breaking and phase separation is achieved by droplet adhesion. An emulsion breaking device includes a channel having distinct adjacent zones with distinctly different surface wettability characteristics, namely, solvophilic and solvophobic surfaces. The device is positioned such that the upstream portion of the device is configured to be wetted by the continuous phase of the emulsion, and the downstream portion of the device is configured to be wetted by the dispersed phase of the emulsion. As the emulsion flows from the upstream zone to the downstream zone, the change in surface wettability characteristics promotes adhesion of the dispersed phase as the dispersed phase wets the surface of the downstream portion of the channel, which results in breaking of the emulsion. Subsequent collection of the broken emulsion in a collection vessel results in separation of the disparate phases to facilitate their recapture and recycling.

University of Virginia and Princeton University | Date: 2014-06-26

Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

Steptoe A.,University College London | Deaton A.,Princeton University | Stone A.A.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Stone A.A.,University of Southern California
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished - evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns of wellbeing with age across different parts of the world. The apparent association between wellbeing and survival is consistent with a protective role of high wellbeing, but alternative explanations cannot be ruled out at this stage. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Vinyard D.J.,Rutgers University | Vinyard D.J.,Princeton University | Ananyev G.M.,Rutgers University | Charles Dismukes G.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water into chemical products that power the planet. The stripped protons contribute to a membrane electrochemical potential before combining with the stripped electrons to make chemical bonds and releasing O2 for powering respiratory metabolisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the kinetics and thermodynamics of water oxidation that highlights the conserved performance of PSIIs across species. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of the site of water oxidation based upon the improved (1.9-Å resolution) atomic structure of the Mn4CaO5 water-oxidizing complex (WOC) within cyanobacterial PSII. We combine these insights with recent knowledge gained from studies of the biogenesis and assembly of the WOC (called photoassembly) to arrive at a proposed chemical mechanism for water oxidation. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Disclosed is a detector for a positron imaging unit, comprises a hollow body with an inner cylindrical wall and an outer wall spaced apart from the inner cylindrical wall. The hollow body includes a scintillating material, suitable to emit photons once hit by a 511 keV Y-ray, and one or more pairs of photo-detecting units (e.g. comprising PMTs or SiPM) for detecting photons emitted by the scintillating material; each photo-detecting unit of a pair being placed at opposite ends of the inner cylindrical wall along a radial direction. The scintillating material has scintillation decay time lower than 10 ns, an atomic number greater than 10, and a high scintillation yield greater than 8,000 photons/MeV, and comprises a mixture of xenon and argon. An imaging unit including the detector and a method to estimate the differential of the dose of radiation provided in a subject to cancer cells and to surrounding tissues in the course of hadrotherapy is also disclosed.

A novel dietary supplement and nutritional aid and methods for the manufacture and administration of the same are disclosed for the inhibition of OCD in afflicted animals, particularly horses. The present invention relates generally to a feed composition and methods of use thereof for reducing the development of Osteochondrosis Dissecans (OCD) lesions in predisposed young animals, particularly horses. More specifically the invention provides a nutritional formula that targets the metabolic deficiencies identified as being correlated with development of OCD.

Princeton University and Battelle | Date: 2013-10-01

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

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