Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2013-05-10
A single-photon receiver is presented. The receiver comprises two SPADs that are monolithically integrated on the same semiconductor chip. Each SPAD is biased with a substantially identical gating signal. The output signals of the SPADs are combined such that capacitive transients present on each output signal cancel to substantially remove them from the output signal from the receiver.
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2012-05-04
A single-photon receiver and method for detecting a single-photon are presented. The receiver comprises a SPAD that receives a gating signal having a fundamental frequency in the 100 MHz to multiple GHz range. The receiver further comprises a two-stage frequency filter for filtering the output of the SPAD, wherein the filter has: (1) a notch filter response at the fundamental frequency; and (2) a low-pass filter response whose cutoff frequency is less than the first harmonic of the fundamental frequency. As a result, the frequency filter removes substantially all the frequency components in the SPAD output without significant degradation of the signal quality but with reduced complexity, cost, and footprint requirement relative to receivers in the prior art.
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2011-05-04
An imaging sensor having sensitivity at the single-photon level is disclosed. The sensor comprises an array of pixels, each of which comprises a negative-feedback avalanche diode and a read-out circuit that includes a counter. The counter keeps track of the number of photons detected by the diode during a given time period.
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2011-09-20
Avalanche photodiodes and methods for forming them are disclosed. The breakdown voltage of an avalanche photodiode is controlled through the inclusion of a diffusion sink that is formed at the same time as the device region of the photodiode. The device region and diffusion sink are formed by diffusing a dopant into a semiconductor to form a p-n junction in the device region. The dopant is diffused through a first diffusion window to form the device region and a second diffusion window to form the diffusion sink. The depth of the p-n junction is based on an attribute of the second diffusion window.
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2012-11-19
A method for aligning a first substrate relative to a second substrate by enabling reflow of low-melting-temperature solder bumps is disclosed. Reflow of the solder bumps induces a force that moves one substrate relative to the other to improve alignment accuracy between bond pads located on each substrate. The method further enables reduction of surface oxide on the solder bumps that would otherwise inhibit reliable solder joint formation.