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Patent
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2016-09-19

An avalanche photodiode (APD) array with reduced cross talk comprises, in the illustrative embodiment, a 2D array of Geiger-mode APDs, wherein a via is formed through the backside (substrate) of each APD in the array.


Patent
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2017-03-07

A method for developing a map of objects in a region surrounding a location is disclosed. The method includes interrogating the region along a detection axis with a series of optical pulses and detecting reflections of the optical pulses that originate at objects located along the detection axis. A multi-dimensional map of the region is developed by scanning the detection axis about the location in at least one dimension. The reflections are detected via a single-photon detector that is armed using a sub-gating scheme such that the single-photon detector selectively detects photons of reflections that originate only within each of a plurality of zones that collectively define the detection field. In some embodiments, the optical pulses have a wavelength within the range of 1350 nm to 1390 nm, which is a spectral range having a relatively high eye-safety threshold and a relatively low solar background.


Patent
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2016-07-25

A GmAPD imager with an increased field of view includes at least one array of movable mirrors. Each movable mirror in the array switches between at least two positions (states). The movable mirrors receive light coming from a first direction when the mirror is in the first state and a second direction when the mirror is in the second state, thus increasing the field of view of the imager.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.60K | Year: 2015

For this Phase II SBIR, Princeton Lightwave Inc. (PLI) is proposing to demonstrate disruptive single photon counting performance characteristics of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) cameras by making dramatic improvements to existing commercial short wave infrared GmAPD focal plane arrays. These cameras provide high-performance three-dimensional imaging capability for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems as well as real-time acquisition and tracking of objects moving at high velocities. The design concepts to be implemented in this development will provide order-of-magnitude improvement in dark count rate, crosstalk, and radiation tolerance over our current state-of-the-art commercial FPAs. To accelerate the deployment of these dramatic performance improvements, our Phase II effort will also be devoted to a complete redesign of the GmAPD FPA and camera to achieve size and weight reductions on the order of 5X 10X, along with reduction of power dissipation by as much as 2X. This development will yield GmAPD sensors with unprecedentedly low size, weight, and power (SWaP), and the reliability of this miniaturized platform will be confirmed through extensive environmental testing. Approved for Public Release 15-MDA-8169 (20 March 15)


Patent
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2013-05-10

A single-photon receiver is presented. The receiver comprises two SPADs that are monolithically integrated on the same semiconductor chip. Each SPAD is biased with a substantially identical gating signal. The output signals of the SPADs are combined such that capacitive transients present on each output signal cancel to substantially remove them from the output signal from the receiver.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 699.73K | Year: 2013

We propose to develop an efficient, tunable Q-switched SSL operating at a wavelength of 1651 nm with pulse energy>1 mJ at 2000 Hz repetition rate with in-band laser diode pumping. We will leverage initial work carried out during Phase I of this program to pursue two approaches: (i) a tunable injection-seeded Q-switched SSL, and (ii) a regenerative power amplifier. In Phase I, we investigated a variety of gallium garnet gain media?including comprehensive characterization of absorption and fluorescence spectra?and we have identified the most promising prospective crystals for 1651 nm emission. We have also demonstrated sufficient tunability to enable differential path LIDAR techniques for the detection of methane.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.95K | Year: 2013

Princeton Lightwave proposes to develop a solid state short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) detector technology with true single photon sensitivity and a cutoff wavelength beyond 2.2 um. Both single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) and negative feedback avalanche diodes (NFADs) will be fabricated. These detectors can be readily integrated into large-format focal plane arrays (FPAs), and array format of 32 x 32, 128 x 32 and 128 x 128 will be fabricated. Both active and passive imaging capability of these array devices will be demonstrated. Extended wavelength response to 2.2 um and beyond will be achieved using a novel type II superlattice absorbers grown on InP substrates. Planar-geometry diffused-junction device structure will be adopted for fabricating these devices, which will lead to low dark count rate and long term device stability. To carry out the proposed development work, we will leverage our past success in manufacturing industry best-in-class InP based SPADs and NFADs and the realization of high-performance arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche diodes as large as 128 x 32. The detector technology to be developed will provide a unique solution to many applications that require single photon level sensitivity across the full SWIR spectral band.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 737.76K | Year: 2016

Growing interest in precise measurements of methane concentration and distribution in the Earth's atmosphere is stimulating efforts to develop LIDAR systems in the spectral region of 16xx nm utilizing Path Differential Absorption techniques. The key element of such systems is a high energy optical source with good beam properties operating in the vicinity of a methane absorption line. A number of very promising architectures for designing high energy lasers at 1651 nm have been described recently, but the performance of the lasers developed in these earlier efforts has been limited by the lack of a sufficiently high-power tunable seed laser. We demonstrated in Phase I of this SBIR program a feasibility of a high power fiber-coupled, narrow linewidth, tunable seed laser at 1650nm. For this SBIR Phase II program, we propose to develop and to deliver a robust seed laser that is highly reliable, compact, and which ultimately will allow the realization of much higher performance high energy laser sources designed for methane detection.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.99K | Year: 2015

Growing interest in precise measurements of methane concentration and distribution in the Earth's atmosphere is stimulating efforts to develop LIDAR systems in the spectral region of 1.65 ?m utilizing Path Differential Absorption techniques. The key element of such systems is a high energy optical source with good beam properties operating in the vicinity of a methane absorption line. A number of very promising architectures for designing high energy lasers at 1651 nm have been described recently, but the performance of the lasers developed in these earlier efforts has been limited by the lack of a sufficiently high-power tunable seed laser. For this SBIR Phase I program, we propose to develop a robust seed laser that is fiber-coupled, narrow linewidth, tunable, highly reliable, compact, and which ultimately will allow the realization of much higher performance high energy laser sources designed for methane detection.


Patent
Princeton Lightwave, Inc. | Date: 2014-01-03

A method for developing a map of objects in a region surrounding a location is disclosed. The method includes interrogating the region along a detection axis with a series of optical pulses and detecting reflections of the optical pulses that originate at objects located along the detection axis. A multi-dimensional map of the region is developed by scanning the detection axis about the location in at least one dimension. The reflections are detected via a single-photon detector that is armed using a sub-gating scheme such that the single-photon detector selectively detects photons of reflections that originate only within each of a plurality of zones that collectively define the detection field. In some embodiments, the optical pulses have a wavelength within the range of 1350 nm to 1390 nm, which is a spectral range having a relatively high eye-safety threshold and a relatively low solar background.

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