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Al-Megrin W.A.I.,Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2016

To investigate the efficacy of pomegranate (Punica granatum) as an alternative and safe treatment against Hymenolipes nana through experimental study on the white laboratory mice. Twenty eight Swiss albino mice naturally infected with Hymenolipes nana. Animals were divided into four groups, one group as control and groups 2-4 were fed daily with dose 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml and 1.5 ml pomegranate peel extract (300 mg/kg) respectively, The egg counts per gram (EPG) one day before treatment and on day 1, 7, 14, and 21 after treatment. All animals were then sacrificed under on day 21. The content of intestines were examined for the presence of worms and counting. Results from current Study revealed that, pomegranate peel extract was lead to reduce the eggs output in fecalpellets of treated infected groups comparing with control group. In addition, the different doses 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml and 1.5 ml of a pomegranate peel extract demonstrated a directly proportional reduction in EPG count (31.5, 38.6 and 43.5) respectively. On the other hand, the number of worms at necropsy was decreased (15.6 ±2.6, 8.4 ±2.1 and 5.7±2.5) in treated infected groups (0.5 ml, 1.0 ml and 1.5 ml) respectively. The findings of this study indicate that Pomegranate peel extract has active role to treat infection of H. nana due to possesses potential anti-cestodal activity. Source

Khan M.,King Saud University | Al-Saleem M.S.M.,Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University | Alkhathlan H.Z.,King Saud University
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society | Year: 2016

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Plectranthus cylindraceus and Plectranthus arabicus grown in Saudi Arabia were analyzed using gas chromatography techniques (GC-MS, GC-FID, Co-GC, LRI determination, and database and literature searches) using two different stationary phase columns (polar and nonpolar). The analysis led to the characterization of a total of 157 different compounds from both oils. In the oil derived from P. cylindraceus, 79 compounds were identified, whereas 132 compounds were identified in the oil derived from P. arabicus; these compounds account for 95.2% and 98.4% of the total oil compositions, respectively. The major constituents of P. cylindraceus oil were patchouli alcohol (55.5. ±. 0.01%), 1,8-cineole (6.0. ±. 0.01%) and valerianol (3.8. ±. 0.18%), whereas, the main compounds of the P. arabicus oil were 1,8-cineole (50.5. ±. 1.37%), β-pinene (7.0. ±. 0.08%), camphor (6.3. ±. 0.19%) and β-myrcene (4.1. ±. 0.10%). To the best of our knowledge, patchouli alcohol found in high concentration in the P. cylindraceus oil has never been reported from the genus Plectranthus. Moreover, this is the first phytochemical study of P. arabicus. © 2016 King Saud University. Source

Shilbayeh S.A.R.,Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University | Sy S.K.B.,University of Florida | Melhem M.,Institute of Clinical Pharmacodynamics | Zmeili R.,ICU Clinical Pharmacy Services | Derendorf H.,University of Florida
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and ABCB1 are responsible for the interindividual variability observed in quetiapine pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic data from a randomized crossover study evaluating 2 quetiapine 25mg immediate-release tablets after single oral dose were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) evaluated for the genotype effects of quetiapine pharmacokinetics were CYP3A5 A6986G and ABCB1 C3435T, along with other demographic variables and formulations. A one-compartment distribution model with linear elimination plus four transit compartments for the delayed absorption adequately described quetiapine disposition. CYP3A5 *1/*1 individuals (n=3) had 29% increased clearance compared to *1/*3 and *3/*3 individuals. The impact of an increased clearance was evaluated by simulations. By computing the probability of target attainment (PTA) of steady-state therapeutic goal at 1-hour and 12-hour time points after 50-400mg twice-daily regimens, the results indicated that CYP3A5 genotype has minimal impact on the PTA of the 1-hour concentrations but a significant impact on the 12-hour concentrations. The interpretation based on the simulations does not call for a genotype-based dosing scheme and is consistent with consensus guidelines for quetiapine that therapeutic drug monitoring is considered useful. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology. Source

Daar E.,University of Jordan | Daar E.,University of Surrey | Al Mugren K.S.,Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University | Chika S.,University of Surrey | And 2 more authors.
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2015

We study elemental concentrations in archaeological human bone, linked to interest in essential element homeostasis and also uptake of potentially harmful elements; the study of elemental concentrations in ancient skeletal remains can potentially be linked with modern studies, providing a reference to high exposure levels no longer common today. The samples, adult bone from the Romano-British period, were obtained from Cirencester, located approximately 150km to the west of London. Some of the remains were found in stone enclosures, others in Pb-lined enclosures, and yet, others devoid of a record of the form of burial. Using a measurement arrangement consisting of a low-energy mini-X-ray generator and a Si-PIN detector, results are obtained of periosteal (bone surface) concentrations, the influence of the post-mortem environment being clearly differentiated from in vivo uptake. Simultaneous multi-element measurements have been made of Zn, Sr and Pb, with respective concentrations in the range 27±16 to 254±17μgg-1; 33±16 to 124±17μgg-1 and 44±15 to ~10% Pbg-1 of interrogated medium. Lead-lined burials result in Pb contamination of the inner (cambium/osteogenic) surface layer of the bone, positively skewing Pb data. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

AL-Megrin W.A.I.,Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Cryptosporidium parasite has gained an attention as an emerging pathogen in the last few decades. It is a zoonotic and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route; this has been implicated as one of the more important opportunistic infections in patients with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst in fecal of sheep (11.1 and 22.2%), goats (15.5 and 10.3%) and camels (18.4 and 22.4%) by using microscopic Ziehl-Neelsen and a serological Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Since there is no a gold standard technique for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts; this study aimed to compare the efficacy of microscopic tests in the detection of oocysts in feces with ELISA assay. Results showed that positive samples (22.4 and 22.2%) were detected by ELISA in camels and sheep respectively. Contrary, Ziehl-Neelsen exceeded ELISA in the detection of oocysts in goats samples (15.5 and 10.3%) in goats. Statistical analysis clarified a significant correlation between Ziehl-Neelsen and ELISA for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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