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Modongo C.,University of Botswana | Sobota R.S.,Dartmouth College | Kesenogile B.,University of Botswana | Kesenogile B.,Princess Marina Referral Hospital | And 4 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Aminoglycosides are a critical component of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment but data on their efficacy and adverse effects in Botswana is scarce. We determined the effect of amikacin on treatment outcomes and development of hearing loss in MDR-TB patients. Methods: Patients started on MDR-TB treatment between 2006 and 2012 were included. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effect of amikacin on treatment outcomes and development of hearing loss. Results: 437 MDR-TB patients were included, 288 (66%) of whom were HIV co-infected. 270 (62%) developed hearing loss, of whom 147 (54%) had audiometry. Of the 313 (72%) patients who completed treatment, 228 (73%) had a good outcome (cure or treatment completion). Good outcome was associated with longer amikacin treatment (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.21) and higher dosage (aOR 1.90, 95% CI 1.12 - 2.99). Longer amikacin duration (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.86 - 2.12) and higher dosage per weight per month (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.28) were associated with development of hearing loss. Amikacin treatment duration modified the effect of the dosage on the risk of hearing loss, increasing this risk as the duration increased. Conclusions: Amikacin was effective for MDR-TB treatment, but was associated with a high incidence of hearing loss especially in our study population. Total treatment duration and average monthly amikacin dose were associated with improved outcomes; however these were also associated with development of hearing loss. © 2014 Modongo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Zetola N.M.,University of Pennsylvania | Zetola N.M.,University of Botswana | Zetola N.M.,Princess Marina Referral Hospital | Modongo C.,University of Botswana | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. Patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis may have phenotypic heterogeneity in results of drug-susceptibility tests (DSTs). However, the impact of this on clinical outcomes among patients treated for MDR tuberculosis is unknown.Methods. Phenotypic DST heterogeneity was defined as presence of at least 1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate susceptible to rifampicin and isoniazid recovered <3 months after MDR tuberculosis treatment initiation from a patient with previous documented tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid. The primary outcome was defined as good (ie, cure or treatment completion) or poor (ie, treatment failure, treatment default, or death). A secondary outcome was time to culture conversion. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association between phenotypic DST heterogeneity and outcomes. Results. Phenotypic DST heterogeneity was identified in 33 of 475 patients (7%) with MDR tuberculosis. Poor outcome occurred in 126 patients (28%). Overall, patients with MDR tuberculosis who had phenotypic DST heterogeneity were at greater risk of poor outcome than those with MDR tuberculosis but no phenotypic DST heterogeneity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.6). Among HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis, the adjusted hazard for a poor outcome for those with phenotypic DST heterogeneity was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.3-4.2) times that for those without phenotypic DST heterogeneity, whereas among HIV-negative patients with MDR tuberculosis, the adjusted hazard for those with phenotypic DST heterogeneity was 1.5 (95% CI,. 5-4.3) times that for those without phenotypic DST heterogeneity. HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis with phenotypic DST heterogeneity also had a longer time to culture conversion than with HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis without phenotypic DST heterogeneity (aHR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-6.0).Conclusions. Phenotypic DST heterogeneity among persons with HIV infection who are being treated for MDR tuberculosis is associated with poor outcomes and longer times to culture conversion. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Lisenda L.,Princess Marina Referral Hospital | Lisenda L.,University of Witwatersrand | Mokete L.,University of Witwatersrand | Mkubwa J.,Princess Marina Referral Hospital | Lukhele M.,University of Witwatersrand
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2016

Purpose: Total hip and knee joint arthroplasty (TJA) rank among the most successful orthopaedic operations. Several developing countries in Africa have started to perform these procedures that are routine in developed countries. The aims of this study were to measure the incidence and assess the determinants of in-hospital mortality after elective primary TJA in our unit and compare it with published data. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the first consecutive cohort of patients who underwent elective primary TJA in Princess Marina Hospital, Botswana between March 2009 and October 2015 (6.5 years). Results: 346 elective joint replacements were performed comprising 153 total hip arthroplasties (THA) and 193 total knee arthroplasties (TKA); 36 % of the THA were in female patients and 82 % of TKA were in females. The mean age was 64.5 years (range 26–86). Three patients died giving an inpatient mortality rate of 0.86 %. These three mortalities represent 1.55 % (three out of 193) of all the TKA. There were no deaths after THA. The cause of mortality in two patients was an adverse cardiac event while the third mortality was due to pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: The inpatient mortality rate of 0.86 % following TJA is higher than the reported rates in the developed countries but comparable with data from other developing countries. The inpatient mortality rate following TKA was higher than that following THA and cardiovascular events proved to be the main cause of death. We recommend formal cardiology assessment and close peri-operative monitoring of all patients with a history of cardiovascular disease undergoing TJA. © 2016 SICOT aisbl

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