Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic

Zwolle, Netherlands

Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic

Zwolle, Netherlands
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Klok T.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Kaptein A.A.,Leiden University | Duiverman E.J.,University of Groningen | Brand P.L.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.,University of Groningen
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2014

Although guideline-based asthma care and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids are predictors of asthma control, the role of adherence in maintaining long-term asthma control is largely unknown. This study was designed to explore the relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and long-term asthma control in young children with asthma. In this observational study, 81 2-6-year-old asthmatic children, using inhaled corticosteroids, closely followed-up in a programme with extensive self-management training, were enrolled. Adherence was measured daily for 12 months using Smartinhaler (Nexus6 Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) devices. Longterm asthma control was assessed by parents and physicians and included clinical assessment, an asthma control questionnaire and lung function measurement. We examined the association of adherence to asthma control, adjusting for seasonal influences and clinical characteristics. Median (interquartile range) adherence was 87% (70-94%), and 64 (79%) children had well-controlled asthma throughout follow-up. Adherence .80% was associated with better asthma control, and we found no important confounders of this association. Children with persistent mild symptoms had lower adherence rates (p50.028). Guideline-based asthma care was associated with good asthma control in most children. Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids was an independent strong predictor of long-term asthma control, with highest levels of asthma control found in children with adherence .80% of doses prescribed.


Carroll W.D.,Derbyshire Childrens Hospital | Wildhaber J.,HFR | Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,University of Groningen
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

The aim of our study was to determine how often asthma control is achieved in children and adolescents, and how asthma affects parents' and children's daily lives. Interviews, including the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), were conducted with 1,284 parents of asthmatic children (aged 4-15 yrs), as well as with the children themselves (aged 8-15 yrs; n=943), in Canada, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, South Africa and the UK. Parents reported mild asthma attacks at least weekly in 11% of children, and serious attacks (requiring oral corticosteroids or hospitalisation) at least annually in 35%. Although 73% of parents described their child's asthma as mild or intermittent, 40% of children/adolescents had C-ACT scores ≤19, indicating inadequate control, and only 14.7% achieved complete Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)-defined control and just 9.2% achieved Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)/British Thoracic Society (BTS)-defined control. Guideline-defined asthma control was significantly less common than well-controlled asthma using the C-ACT (p<0.001). Asthma restricted the child's activities in 39% of families and caused lifestyle changes in 70%. Complete asthma control is uncommon in children worldwide. Guideline-defined control measures appear to be more stringent than those defined by C-ACT or families. Overall, parents underestimate their child's asthma severity and overestimate asthma control. This is a major potential barrier to successful asthma treatment in children. Copyright©ERS 2012.


De Groot E.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Duiverman E.J.,University of Groningen | Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,University of Groningen
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

Asthma in adults is associated with comorbidities such as obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dysfunctional breathing and mental disorders. Herein, we provide an overview of the current state of evidence on these comorbidities in childhood asthma. The prevalence, known mechanisms and possible treatment options for each comorbid condition will be discussed. Obesity is an increasing health problem in children, but its relationship with asthma remains unclear. Allergic rhinitis is a very common comorbidity in asthma, both in children and in adults, but its effect on childhood asthma severity has not been studied. The prevalence and treatment options of dysfunctional breathing, a known comorbidity in adult asthma, have not yet been studied in paediatric asthma. Food allergies appear to cause more severe reactions in patients with asthma. Depressive disorders are more prevalent in childhood asthma than in healthy children, but seem to be poorly recognised and treated in children. Although gastro-oesophageal reflux is commonly thought to be a comorbid disease complicating asthma, it remains uncertain whether treatment improves asthma control. In conclusion, knowledge of asthma comorbidities in childhood is sparse. Further studies are urgently needed to identify the prevalence, and, more importantly, the effects of these comorbidities and their treatment on the degree of asthma control in children. Copyright©ERS 2010.


Fouzas S.,University of Patras | Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,University of Groningen
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2013

Since preschool wheezing is the common expression of several heterogeneous disorders, identification of children at risk for persistent asthma is particularly challenging. To date, efforts to predict the outcome of preschool wheeze have mainly relied on predictive rules consisting of simple clinical and laboratory parameters. Among these tools, the asthma predictive index (API) has been introduced in international guidelines and position papers and is recommended for use in clinical practice. This article reviews the currently available asthma predictive models focusing on their validity and performance characteristics. Although these tools are generally simple and easy to apply, they suffer important intrinsic and practical limitations and they have been insufficiently validated to allow for widespread use in clinical settings. We also present evidence that their ability to predict the long-term outcome of preschool wheeze is limited in general populations, and even poorer in high-risk children in which prediction of asthma persistence might have important clinical and prognostic implications. Due to the complex and multifactorial nature of asthma, prediction of asthma persistence based on simple clinical models is practically impossible. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,University of Groningen | Stiggelbout A.M.,Leiden University
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2013

Paediatricians spend a considerable proportion of their time performing follow-up visits for children with chronic conditions, but they rarely receive specific training on how best to perform such consultations. The traditional method of running a follow-up consultation is based on the doctor's agenda, and is problem-oriented. Patients and parents, however, prefer a patient-centered, and solution-focused approach. Although many physicians now recognize the importance of addressing the patient's perspective in a follow-up consultation, a number of barriers hamper its implementation in practice, including time constraints, lack of appropriate training, and a strong tradition of the biomedical, doctor-centered approach. Addressing the patient's perspective successfully can be achieved through shared decision making, clinicians and patients making decisions together based on the best clinical evidence. Research shows that shared decision making not only increases patient, parent, and physician satisfaction with the consultation, but also may improve health outcomes. Shared decision making involves building a physician-patient-parent partnership, agreeing on the problem at hand, laying out the available options with their benefits and risks, eliciting the patient's views and preferences on these options, and agreeing on a course of action. Shared decision making requires specific communication skills, which can be learned, and should be mastered through deliberate practice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


De Groot E.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Nijkamp A.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Duiverman E.J.,University of Groningen | Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,University of Groningen
Thorax | Year: 2012

Background: Asthma and allergic rhinitis are the two most common chronic disorders in childhood and adolescence. To date, no study has examined the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis on asthma control in children. Objective: To examine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma, and the impact of the disease and its treatment on asthma control. Methods: A cross-sectional survey in 203 children with asthma (5-18 years) using validated questionnaires on rhinitis symptoms (stuffy or runny nose outside a cold) and its treatment, and the paediatric Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). Fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) was measured with a Niox Mino analyser; total and specific IgE levels were assessed by the Immunocap system. Results: 157 children (76.2%) had symptoms of allergic rhinitis but only 88 of these (56.1%) had been diagnosed with the condition by a physician. ACQ scores were worse in children with allergic rhinitis than in those without the condition (p=0.012). An ACQ score ≥1.0 (incomplete asthma control) was significantly more likely in children with allergic rhinitis than in those without (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.91, p=0.0081), also after adjustment for FeNO levels and total serum IgE. After adjustment for nasal corticosteroid therapy, allergic rhinitis was no longer associated with incomplete asthma control (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.12, p=0.150). Conclusion: Allergic rhinitis is common in children with asthma, and has a major impact on asthma control. The authors hypothesise that recognition and treatment of this condition with nasal corticosteroids may improve asthma control in children, but randomised clinical trials are needed to test this hypothesis.


Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,University of Groningen
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2011

Although montelukast is claimed to be preferable to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis, virus-induced exacerbations, exercise induced asthma, and in those experiencing difficulties with inhalation therapy, there is no scientific evidence to support any of these claims. In comparative trials and systematic reviews, inhaled corticosteroids are clearly more effective than montelukast in reducing asthma exacerbations, improving lung function, symptom scores, and rescue medication use. The effects on exercise induced bronchoconstriction appear to be similar. Because of their superior efficacy and excellent long-term efficacy and safety profile, inhaled corticosteroids are the treatment of first choice for the maintenance therapy of childhood asthma, irrespective of age or clinical phenotype. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Klok T.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Kaptein A.A.,Leiden University | Duiverman E.J.,University of Groningen | Brand P.L.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

Our aim was to study determinants of adherence in young asthmatic children over a 3-month period, including the role of parental illness and medication perceptions as determinants of adherence. Consecutive 2-6-yr-old children with asthma, using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), followed-up at our paediatric asthma clinic (where patients are being extensively trained in self-management, and are followed-up closely) were enrolled. Adherence was measured electronically using a Smartinhaler1 and calculated as a percentage of the prescribed dose. We examined the association of adherence to a range of putative determinants, including clinical characteristics and parental perceptions about illness and medication. Median (interquartile range) adherence, measured over 3 months in 93 children, was 92 (76- 97)%, and most children had well controlled asthma. 94% of parents expressed the view that giving ICS to their child would protect him/her from becoming worse. Adherence was significantly associated with asthma control and with parental perceptions about medication. The high adherence rate observed in our study was associated with parental perceptions about ICS need. The high perceived need of ICS may probably be ascribed to the organisation of asthma care (with repeated tailored education and close follow-up). Copyright © 2012 ERS.


Hoving M.F.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2013

Aim Because the few previous studies on underlying causes of recurrent pneumonia in children have come from tertiary care referral centres where selection bias may be important, the aim of this study was to examine underlying causes of recurrent pneumonia in children in a general hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review in a general hospital of 62 children with recurrent pneumonia over a 7.5 years period. Results In 19 patients (30.6%), no cause was identified, commonly because favourable natural history obviated the need for a full and invasive diagnostic work-up. Other underlying causes included recurrent aspiration in 16 patients (25.7%), lung disease (airway stenosis, bronchiectasis, middle lobe syndrome or tracheooesophageal fistula) in 10 patients (16.1%) and immune deficiency in 10 patients (16.1%). In contrast to previous studies, asthma was never diagnosed as an underlying cause, but diagnostic confusion between asthma (or recurrent upper respiratory tract infections) and recurrent pneumonia was common. Conclusion The cause of recurrent pneumonia in children remains elusive in almost a third of patients, partly because the favourable natural history consistent with immune system maturation eliminates the need for further diagnostic procedures. Asthma is more likely a differential diagnostic consideration than an underlying cause of recurrent pneumonia in children. A standardised diagnostic guideline is needed to improve knowledge on causes of recurrent pneumonia in children. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).


Bekhof J.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Reimink R.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic | Brand P.L.P.,Princess Amalia Childrens Clinic
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2014

Background: A reliable, valid, and easy-to-use assessment of the degree of wheeze-associated dyspnoea is important to provide individualised treatment for children with acute asthma, wheeze or bronchiolitis. Objective: To assess validity, reliability, and utility of all available paediatric dyspnoea scores. Methods: Systematic review. We searched Pubmed, Cochrane library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Embase and Cinahl for eligible studies. We included studies describing the development or use of a score, assessing two or more clinical symptoms and signs, for the assessment of severity of dyspnoea in an acute episode of acute asthma, wheeze or bronchiolitis in children aged 0-18 years. We assessed validity, reliability and utility of the retrieved dyspnoea scores using 15 quality criteria. Results: We selected 60 articles describing 36 dyspnoea scores. Fourteen scores were judged unsuitable for clinical use, because of insufficient face validity, use of items unsuitable for children, difficult scoring system or because complex auscultative skills are needed, leaving 22 possibly useful scores. The median number of quality criteria that could be assessed was 7 (range 6-11). The median number of positively rated quality criteria was 3 (range 1-5). Although most scores were easy to use, important deficits were noted in all scores across the three methodological quality domains, in particular relating to reliability and responsiveness. Conclusion: None of the many dyspnoea scores has been sufficiently validated to allow for clinically meaningful use in children with acute dyspnoea or wheeze. Proper validation of existing scores is warranted to allow paediatric professionals to make a well balanced decision on the use of the dyspnoea score most suitable for their specific purpose. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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