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Woolloongabba, Australia

Nourse J.P.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Jones K.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | Gandhi M.K.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2011

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a spectrum of major, life-threatening lymphoproliferative diseases occurring in the post-transplant setting. The majority of PTLD is of B-cell origin and is associated with several risk factors, the most significant being Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV's in vitro transforming abilities, distinctive latency, clonality within the malignant cells and response to targeted therapies implicate a critical role in the biology of PTLD. This minireview focuses on EBV-related PTLD pathogenesis, in particular the interplay between aspects of the EBV life cycle and latency with nonviral factors resulting in the wide spectrum of histology and clinical presentations encountered in PTLD. With the increased prevalence of transplantation a rise in the incidence of PTLD may be expected. Therefore the importance of laboratory and animal models in the understanding of PTLD and the development of novel therapeutic approaches is discussed. © 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

Hsu C.C.,Princess Alexandra Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

During thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) surgery, decreased spinal cord perfusion can result in neurological deficits such as paraplegia and paraparesis. Distal aortic perfusion, alone or in combination with other adjuncts, may counter the decrease in spinal cord perfusion and hence reduce the risk of spinal cord injury. To determine the effectiveness of distal aortic perfusion with or without other adjuncts against other adjuncts without use of distal perfusion during TAAA surgery in reducing the risk of developing paraplegia and paraparesis. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Specialised Register (last searched 5 January 2012) and CENTRAL (Issue 4, 2011) were searched for publications describing randomised controlled trials of distal aortic perfusion during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Reference lists of relevant studies were checked. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials of distal aortic perfusion during TAAA repair. Studies identified for potential inclusion were independently assessed for inclusion by at least two authors, with excluded trials arbitrated by the third author. There were no randomised controlled trials identified. Currently, there are no randomised controlled trials to support the role of distal aortic perfusion in TAAA surgery for prevention of neurological injury. However, randomised controlled trials are not always feasible based on ethical grounds. Observational studies suggest that distal aortic perfusion alone or in combination with other adjuncts, that is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, reduces the rate of neurologic deficit across all types of TAAA; in particular making a striking difference in the rate of neurologic deficit following type II TAAA repair. In the absence of randomised controlled trials, we recommend a standardised approach to reporting through registry studies to strengthen the evidence base for distal aortic perfusion.

Hancock K.L.,Princess Alexandra Hospital
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

Device life of the Provox Vega Indwelling voice prosthesis is as yet untested outside Europe. The current study examined device life and reasons for replacement within an Australian clinical setting. Twenty-three participants were monitored for device life and reasons for replacement. Main outcome measure was days to failure of initial device. Average device life and reasons for replacement were secondary measures. Initial device life data revealed 67 % had functioning devices at 3 months, 52 % at 6 months and 29 % at 12 months. Average device life was 207 days (median of 222). The majority of devices (97 %) failed due to leakage through the prosthesis. The Provox Vega Indwelling voice prosthesis had favourable device life in this cohort of patients and in comparison to European data. Reasons for replacement were consistent with international literature.

Badve S.V.,Princess Alexandra Hospital
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

People living with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) often develop anaemia. Erythropoiesis-simulating agents (ESAs) are often given to people living with ESKD to maintain haemoglobin at a level to minimise need for transfusion. However, about 5% to 10% of patients with ESKD exhibit resistance to ESAs, and observational studies have shown that patients requiring high doses of ESA are at increased risk of mortality. This review aimed to study the effects of interventions for the treatment of ESA-resistant anaemia in people with ESKD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials (RCT) that involved participants with ESKD on dialysis or who were pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 5). Date of last search: April 2013. ESA resistance was defined as failure to achieve or maintain haemoglobin/haematocrit levels within the desired target range despite appropriate ESA doses (erythropoietin ≥ 450 U/kg/wk intravenously or ≥ 300 U/kg/wk subcutaneously; darbepoetin ≥ 1.5 μg/kg/wk) in people who were not nutritionally deficient, or who had haematological or bleeding disorders. Extended inclusion criteria for ESA hyporesponsive state were: erythropoietin dose ≥ 300 U/kg/wk and ≥ 150 U/kg/wk for intravenous administration; or ≥ 200 U/kg/wk and ≥ 100 U/kg/wk for subcutaneous administration; or darbepoetin dose ≥ 1.0 μg/kg/wk). Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using a random effects model and results expressed as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Titles and abstracts of 521 records were screened, of which we reviewed 99 from the full text. Only two studies matched our inclusion criteria. One study compared intravenous vitamin C versus no study medication for six months in 42 ESKD patients on haemodialysis who required intravenous erythropoietin (dose ≥ 450 U/kg/wk). The other included study compared high-flux dialyser versus low-flux dialyser for six months in 48 haemodialysis patients who required subcutaneous erythropoietin (dose ≥ 200 U/kg/wk). Because interventions differed, data could not be combined for quantitative meta-analysis. There was inadequate evidence identified to inform recommendation of any intervention to ameliorate ESA hyporesponsiveness. Adequately powered RCTs are required to establish the safety and efficacy of interventions to improve responsiveness to ESA therapy.

Scott I.,Princess Alexandra Hospital
Australian Health Review | Year: 2014

Objective To articulate the concept of high-value care (i.e. clinically relevant, patient-important benefit at lowest possible cost) and suggest strategies by which clinicians can promote such care in rendering the Australian healthcare system more affordable and sustainable. Methods Strategies were developed by the author based on personal experience in clinical practice, evidence-based medicine and quality improvement. Relevant literature was reviewed in retrieving studies supporting each strategy. Results Ten strategies were developed: (1) minimise errors in diagnosis; (2) discontinue low- or no-value practices that provide little benefit or cause harm; (3) defer the use of unproven interventions; (4) select care options according to comparative cost-effectiveness; (5) target clinical interventions to those who derive greatest benefit; (6) adopt a more conservative approach nearing the end of life; (7) actively involve patients in shared decision making and self-management; (8) minimise day-to-day operational waste; (9) convert healthcare institutions into rapidly learning organisations; and (10) advocate for integrated patient care across all clinical settings. Conclusions Clinicians and their professional organisations, in partnership with managers, can implement strategies capable of maximising value and sustainability of health care in Australia. What is known about this topic? Value-based care has emerged as a unitary concept that integrates quality and cost, and is being increasingly used to inform healthcare policy making and reform. What does this paper add? There is scant literature that translates the concept of high value care into actionable enhancement strategies for clinicians in everyday practice settings. This article provides 10 strategies with supporting studies in an attempt to fill this gap. What are the implications for practitioners? If all practitioners, in partnership with healthcare managers, attempted to enact all 10 strategies in their workplaces, a significant quantum of healthcare resources could be redirected from low- to high-value care, culminating in much greater health benefit from the healthcare dollars currently being spent. However, such reforms will require a shift in clinician thinking and practice away from volume-based care to value-based care. © AHHA 2014.

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