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Sakkijha H.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Idrees M.M.,Prince Sultan Medical Military City
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2014

Chronic lung diseases are common causes of pulmonary hypertension. It ranks second after the left heart disease. Both obstructive and restrictive lung diseases are know to cause pulmonary hypertension. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex, and includes factors affecting the blood vessels, airways, and lung parenchyma. Hypoxia and the inhalation of toxic materials are another contributing factors. Recent guidelines have further clarified the association between pulmonary hypertension and chronic lung disease and made general guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management. In this article, we will provide a detailed revision about the new classification and give general recommendations about the management of pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases. Source


Mayer E.,Kerckhoff Clinic | Idrees M.M.,Prince Sultan Medical Military City
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2014

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is categorized as group IV in the WHO classification for pulmonary hypertension. The disease requires a very low index of suspicion for identification and needs a special diagnostic approach utilizing clinical, radiological, and hemodynamic tools. As CTEPH is potentially curable, all efforts should be consumed to reach the accurate diagnosis and subsequently evaluated for operability. Although pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the only curative tool so far, recent updates concerning medical and interventional therapy have made significant advances in inoperable patients. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion on diagnostic algorithm, surgical operability criteria, PEA, and the medical therapy. Source


Idrees M.M.,Prince Sultan Medical Military City | Swiston J.,Vancouver General Hospital | Levy R.D.,Vancouver General Hospital
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2014

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients is challenging and should only be initiated after a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Such treatment should ideally be done in specialized centers with full capability for hemodynamic measurements, having access to a broad range of PAH therapies, and adequate experience in the management of critically ill patients. The following discussion is intended to review the general measures and the non-specific (supportive) therapy used in managing PH patients, while the specific therapy will be discussed in a subsequent different article. Source


Saleemi S.,King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center | Idrees M.M.,Prince Sultan Medical Military City
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2014

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is defined as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) complicated by portal hypertension, with or without advanced hepatic disease. Significant percentage of patients with cirrhotic liver disease has high cardiac output and subsequently elevated pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP). However, patients with POPH develop a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), which is generally lower than that observed in other forms of PAH. The prognosis of untreated patients with POPH is very poor and the outcome of liver transplant (LT) in those patients is determined by the degree of severity of the associated pulmonary hemodynamics. In this narrative review, we describe the clinical presentation of POPH, the pathobiology, and the clinical implication of pulmonary hemodynamics. We also provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosic and management approaches of POPH. Source


Khan J.,King Fahd Armed Forced Hospital | Idrees M.M.,Prince Sultan Medical Military City
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2014

Pregnancy in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The physiological changes occur during normal pregnancy, such as increase blood volume and cardiac output (CO) may be detrimental in PH patients. Several practice guidelines advise against pregnancy and even recommend termination of pregnancy. Occasionally PH may be diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy, as stress of pregnancy can unmask previously undiagnosed PH in an asymptomatic individual. This narrative review provides a detailed discussion about the physiologic parameters associated in pregnancy and their negative effect on the right ventricle. It also gives practical evidence-based recommendations about different management issues in PH pregnant patients. Source

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