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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Di Mauro M.,Prince Sultan Cardiac Center
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery

To identify a safety threshold of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) duration; to determine which protection offers the best outcome and whether a 10-min period of cold perfusion (20°C) preceding rewarming can reduce neurological events (NE). From January 1988 to April 2009, 456 patients underwent aortic surgery using DHCA: for chronic disease in 239 and acute in 217. Cerebral protection was obtained by straight DHCA (sDHCA) in 69 cases, retrograde perfusion (RCP) in 198 and antegrade perfusion (ACP) in 189. In 247 subjects, a 10-min period of cold perfusion (20°C) preceded rewarming; in 209 rewarming was restarted without this preliminary. Fifty-eight patients (13%) experienced NE. Twenty-two (5%) suffered temporary neurological dysfunction (TND) and 36 (8%) suffered stroke. DHCA duration >30 min was predictive for higher rate of NE (25.2% vs. 2.0%, P 0.001); after this value, only ACP was able to reduce incidence of NE (16.5% vs. 30.5%, P = 0.035). Cold reperfusion before rewarming significantly reduced incidence of NE (7.7% vs. 18.7%, P < 0.001) and extended the safe period to 40 min. Thirty-day mortality was 16.0%. Predictors of higher early mortality were acute aortic disease, longer DHCA, lack of ACP or prompt rewarming when DHCA >30 min and postoperative stroke. sDHCA remains a safe and easy tool for cerebral protection when DHCA duration is expected to be less than 30 min. When aortic surgery requires a longer period, ACP should be instituted. Before rewarming, a 10-min period of cold perfusion significantly reduces incidence of NE. Source

Bhagavatula S.K.,CARE Hospital andhra Pradesh Hyderabad | Idrees M.M.,Prince Sultan Cardiac Center
Annals of Thoracic Medicine

There is scant published data about pulmonary hypertension (PH) from the developing countries. True prevalence of the disease, its biology, etiology and response to treatment are not well known, and they are likely to be somewhat different from that of the developed countries. In this review, we will discuss the main challenges for managing PH in developing countries and propose real-life recommendations to deal with such difficulties. Source

Lopes A.,University of Sao Paulo | Alnajashi K.,Prince Sultan Cardiac Center
Annals of Thoracic Medicine

Congenital heart disease (CHD) with intracardiac/extracardiac shunts is an important etiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The majority of children with congenital cardiac shunts do not develop advanced pulmonary vasculopathy, as surgical repair of the anomalies is now performed early in life. However, if not repaired early, some defects will inevitably lead to pulmonary vascular disease (truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great arteries associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrioventricular septal defects remarkably in Down syndrome, large, nonrestrictive VSDs, patent ductus arteriosus and related anomalies). The majority of patients are now assigned to surgery based on noninvasive evaluation only. PAH becomes a concern (requiring advanced diagnostic procedures) in about 2-10% of them. In adults with CHD, the prevalence of advanced pulmonary vasculopathy (Eisenmenger syndrome) is around 4-12%. [1] This article will discuss the diagnostic and management approach for PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD). Source

Calafiore A.M.,Prince Sultan Cardiac Center
The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon

Surgical treatment of anteroseptal scars has been, and still is, a challenging task for cardiac surgeons. Most patients are in heart failure and the infarcted areas can include different parts of the septum and the anterior wall. The core problem of ischemic congestive heart failure is the undue demand placed on the residual viable left ventricle myocardium. The surgical techniques used to correct the mismatch between contractile and asynergic areas differ, but the evolution of surgical techniques for left ventricular surgical remodeling (LVSR) is still a work in progress. The most popular one was proposed by Dor et al. in the 1980s and is still in general use. This technique addressed the problem of recovering a predictable volume but not necessarily the problem of rebuilding a physiologically conical shape. This anatomical aspect is becoming increasingly important, and the purpose of septal reshaping, as proposed by us in 2004, is more to recover a conical shape than to achieve volume reduction. Thus, we use the Dor operation only when septoapical scars are present. The need for a different surgical strategy is emphasized by the result of the STICH trial, which reports the data of 1000 patients randomized for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, n = 499) or CABG and LVSR (n = 501) and which failed to show any benefit of LVSR. However, the only surgical technique used was the classic Dor operation, where the purpose was to reestablish volume and not to recreate a physiological shape. This study, however, does not provide a definitive answer, as echocardiography results included only 212 patients in the CABG arm and 161 in the CABG and LVSR arm. Furthermore, previous myocardial infarction (MI) was not a prerequisite for study inclusion (13 % of patients in each group had no previous MI) and whether a previous MI was Q-wave or not was not specified. In conclusion, the long-term results after LVSR are satisfactory but appear to be better if a conical shape has been recreated. The role of preemptive surgery in selected cases and how to establish the limits of LVSR (grade of preoperative diastolic dysfunction, diastolic diameter, ventricular volumes, function of the remote zone, etc.) is still unclear. The impact of each individual treatment in the individual patient (medical treatment, CABG alone, CABG and LVSR) has still to be identified. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

Faris R.F.,Prince Sultan Cardiac Center
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

Chronic heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diuretics are regarded as the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure since they provide symptomatic relief. The effects of diuretics on disease progression and survival remain unclear. To assess the harms and benefits of diuretics for chronic heart failure Updated searches were run in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL Issue 1 of 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to 22 February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 07) and HERDIN database (1990 to February 2011). We hand searched pertinent journals and reference lists of papers were inspected. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. Double-blinded randomised controlled trials of diuretic therapy comparing one diuretic with placebo, or one diuretic with another active agent (e.g. ACE inhibitors, digoxin) in patients with chronic heart failure. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of each trial. Extracted data were analysed by determining the odds ratio for dichotomous data, and difference in means for continuous data, of the treated group compared with controls. The likelihood of heterogeneity of the study population was assessed by the Chi-square test. If there was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity and pooling of results was clinically appropriate, a combined estimate was obtained using the fixed-effects model. This update has not identified any new studies for inclusion. The review includes 14 trials (525 participants), 7 were placebo-controlled, and 7 compared diuretics against other agents such as ACE inhibitors or digoxin. We analysed the data for mortality and for worsening heart failure. Mortality data were available in 3 of the placebo-controlled trials (202 participants). Mortality was lower for participants treated with diuretics than for placebo, odds ratio (OR) for death 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.83; P = 0.02. Admission for worsening heart failure was reduced in those taking diuretics in two trials (169 participants), OR 0.07 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.52; P = 0.01). In four trials comparing diuretics to active control (91 participants), diuretics improved exercise capacity in participants with CHF, difference in means WMD 0.72 , 95% CI 0.40 to 1.04; P < 0.0001. The available data from several small trials show that in patients with chronic heart failure, conventional diuretics appear to reduce the risk of death and worsening heart failure compared to placebo. Compared to active control, diuretics appear to improve exercise capacity. Source

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