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Randwick, Australia

McAuliffe W.,Neurological Intervention and Imaging Service Western Australia | Wenderoth J.D.,Prince of Wales Hospital
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A number of flow-diverting devices have become available for endovascular occlusion of cerebral aneurysms. This article reports immediate and midterm results in recently ruptured aneurysms treated with the PED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective registry was established at 3 Australian neurointerventional sites to collect data on ruptured and unruptured aneurysms treated with PED during a 12-month period from August 2009. From this data base of 65 patients, 11 cases of recent aneurysmal SAH were examined. Relevant data including antiplatelet therapy, technical issues, complications, and imaging findings during at least a 6-month period of follow-up were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Eleven patients had acutely ruptured aneurysms with SAH. Clinical follow-up was available on all cases with imaging follow-up at 6 months in 9 patients. Two patients died from rebleeding during the acute illness. There was no other procedural or delayed significant symptomatic morbidity. Eight aneurysms were occluded with a single case of residual body filling. CONCLUSIONS: PED should be used in SAH with caution, reserved for suitable patients concomitantly treated with endosaccular coiling if possible. Source

Tan G.M.,Prince of Wales Hospital
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2010

Chronic oral anticoagulation with warfarin is difficult to maintain within the therapeutic range and requires frequent monitoring and dose adjustments. Variations in two genes, VKORC1 and CYP2C9, have been associated with variation in warfarin metabolism among individuals. Patients with CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants have longer times to dose stabilization and are at higher risk of serious and life-threatening bleeding. VKORC1 polymorphisms significantly influence time to first therapeutic warfarin range, and variants in this gene determine low-, intermediate- and high-warfarin dose requirements. The prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms vary among different ethnic groups, and can account for over 30% of variance in warfarin dose. Recent studies suggest that the pharmacogenomics-guided dosing algorithm can accurately predict warfarin dosage and might reduce adverse events. We aim to review the pharmacogenetics of warfarin metabolism and the clinical role of genetic testing for warfarin therapy. Source

Campbell R.,Prince of Wales Hospital
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Purpose of review: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare and heterogeneous disease that is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed late with more advanced sequelae. PCD primarily effects the respiratory tract, yet most research focuses on the lower respiratory tract manifestations, most of which is derived from research on cystic fibrosis. Little is known about the management of the upper respiratory tract sequelae of PCD. This review summarizes the available evidence for the management of otologic and sinonasal manifestations of PCD. Recent findings: The natural history of otitis media with effusion and hearing loss in PCD appears to fluctuate into adulthood and does not resolve by the age of 9 years, regardless of treatment, as previously assumed. Ventilation tube insertion improves hearing in PCD, but may lead to a higher rate of otorrhoea when compared with the general population. Sinonasal disease in PCD is poorly studied; however, it appears that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may benefit from long-term macrolide therapy and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in recalcitrant disease. Therapies targeted at improving mucociliary clearance have not been tested specifically in PCD. Pharmacogenetic therapy is currently under investigation to target the primary defect in PCD. Summary: Otologic sequeale in PCD should undergo lifelong evaluation and monitoring and ventilation tube insertion should be considered to avoid complications of chronic hearing loss. Sinonasal disease benefits from macrolide therapy and ESS. Randomized controlled trials of treatment efficacy of the upper respiratory tract manifestations of PCD are lacking. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health. Source

Bennett M.H.,Prince of Wales Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) consists of intermittently administering 100% oxygen at pressures greater than one atmosphere absolute (ATA) in a pressure vessel. This technology has been used to treat a variety of diseases and has been described as helping patients who have delayed healing or established non-union of bony fractures. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) for the treatment of delayed bony healing and established non-union of bony fractures. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (April 2008), the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2008), MEDLINE (OVID 1966 to April week 3, 2008), CINAHL (OVID 1982 to April week 3, 2008), EMBASE (OVID 1980 to week 17 2008), the locally developed Database of Randomised Controlled Trials in Hyperbaric Medicine (available at www.hboevidence.com) from inception to May 2008, and reference lists of articles. We aimed to include all randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of HBOT with no HBOT (no treatment or sham). We planned independent data collection by two authors using standardised forms. No trials met the inclusion criteria. We excluded one trial that compared HBOT with no treatment because no clinical outcomes were reported. This systematic review failed to locate any relevant clinical evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of HBOT for the management of delayed union or established non-union of bony fractures. Good quality clinical trials are needed to define the role, if any, of HBOT in the treatment of these injuries. Source

Bennett M.H.,Prince of Wales Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Cancer is a common disease and radiotherapy is one well-established treatment for some solid tumours. Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBOT) may improve the ability of radiotherapy to kill hypoxic cancer cells, so the administration of radiotherapy while breathing hyperbaric oxygen may result in a reduction in mortality and recurrence. To assess the benefits and harms of radiotherapy while breathing HBO. In March 2011 we searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, DORCTHIM and reference lists of articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised studies comparing the outcome of malignant tumours following radiation therapy while breathing HBO versus air. Three review authors independently evaluated the quality of the relevant trials and extracted the data from the included trials. Nineteen trials contributed to this review (2286 patients: 1103 allocated to HBOT and 1153 to control). With HBOT, there was a reduction in mortality for head and neck cancers at both one year and five years after therapy (risk ratio (RR) 0.83, P = 0.03, number needed to treat (NNT) = 11; and RR 0.82, P = 0.03, NNT = 5 respectively), as well as improved local tumour control at three months (RR with HBOT 0.58, P = 0.006, NNT = 7). The effect of HBOT varied with different fractionation schemes. Local tumour recurrence was less likely with HBOT at one year (head and neck: RR 0.66, P < 0.0001, NNT = 5), two years (uterine cervix: RR 0.60, P = 0.04, NNT = 5) and five years (head and neck: (RR 0.77, P = 0.01, NNT = 6). Any advantage is achieved at the cost of some adverse effects. There was a significant increase in the rate of both severe radiation tissue injury (RR 2.35, P < 0.0001, (number needed to harm (NNH) = 8) and the chance of seizures during therapy (RR 6.76, P = 0.03, NNH = 22) with HBOT. There is some evidence that HBOT improves local tumour control and mortality for cancers of the head and neck, and local tumour recurrence in cancers of the head and neck, and uterine cervix. These benefits may only occur with unusual fractionation schemes. HBOT is associated with significant adverse effects including oxygen toxic seizures and severe tissue radiation injury. The methodological and reporting inadequacies of the studies included demand a cautious interpretation. More research is needed for head and neck cancer, but is probably not justified for bladder cancer. There is little evidence available concerning malignancies at other anatomical sites on which to base a recommendation. Source

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