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Taylor M.E.,Falls and Balance Research Group | Delbaere K.,Falls and Balance Research Group | Lord S.R.,Falls and Balance Research Group | Mikolaizak A.S.,Falls and Balance Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Background. Older people with cognitive impairment have an elevated fall risk, with 60% falling annually. There is a lack of evidence for fall prevention in this population, in part due to limited understanding of risk factors. This study examined fall risk in older people with cognitive impairment with an emphasis on identifying explanatory and modifiable risk factors. Methods. One hundred and seventy-seven community-dwelling older people with mild-moderate cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 11-23/Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised <83) underwent neuropsychological, physical, and functional assessments. Falls were recorded prospectively for 12 months with the assistance of carers. Results. Of the 174 participants available to follow-up, 111 (64%) fell at least once and 71 (41%) at least twice. Higher fall rates were associated with slower reaction time, impaired balance (sway on floor and foam, semitandem, near-tandem, tandem stance), and reduced functional mobility (co-ordinated stability, timed up-and-go, steps needed to turn 180°, sit-to-stand, gait velocity). Higher fall rates were also associated with increased medication use (central nervous system, total number) and poorer performances in cognitive (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised: visuospatial domain, cube drawing; Trail-Making Test) and psychological (Geriatric Depression Scale, Goldberg Anxiety Scale, Falls Efficacy Scale-International) tests. Multivariate analysis identified increased sway on foam, co-ordinated stability score, and depressive symptoms to be significantly and independently associated with falls while controlling for age, years of education, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised score. Conclusions. This study identified several risk factors of falls in older people with cognitive impairment, a number of which are potentially modifiable. Future research involving targeted interventions addressing medication use, balance, mood, and functional performance may prove useful for fall prevention in this population. © 2013 The Author. Source


Smith M.A.,University of New South Wales | Liu B.,University of New South Wales | Liu B.,Sax Institute | McIntyre P.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background.Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targeting females aged 12-13 years commenced in Australia in 2007, with catch-up vaccination of females aged 13-26 years continuing to 2009. Whole-population analyses, including effects on the Indigenous population, have not previously been reported. Methods.All hospital admissions between 1999-2011 involving a diagnosis of genital warts were obtained from a comprehensive national database. We compared the age-specific rates before to those after implementation of the vaccination program, according to sex and other characteristics. Results.Admission rates decreased from mid-2007 in females aged 12-17 years (annual decline, 44.1% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 35.4%-51.6%]) and from mid-2008 in females and males aged 18-26 years (annual declines, 31.8% [95% CI, 28.4%-35.2%] and 14.0% [95% CI, 5.1%-22.1%], respectively). The overall reductions from 2006-2007 to 2010-2011 were 89.9% (95% CI, 84.4%-93.4%) for females aged 12-17 years, 72.7% (95% CI, 67.0%-77.5%) for females aged 18-26 years, and 38.3% (95% CI, 27.7%-47.2%) for males aged 18-26 years. Compared with the average annual number before program implementation, about 1000 fewer hospital admissions involved a warts diagnosis during 2010-2011. Reductions after program implementation were similar for Indigenous (86.7% [95% CI, 76.0-92.7]) and non-Indigenous (76.1% [95% CI, 71.6%-79.9%]) females aged 15-24 years (Pheterogeneity =. 08). Conclusions.National population-based hospital data confirm previous clinic-based reports of a marked decline in genital warts diagnoses among young people in Australia after program implementation, including indirect benefits to males. The impact of HPV vaccination appears to be similar in young Indigenous and non-Indigenous females. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source


Taylor M.E.,Falls and Balance Research Group | Lord S.R.,Falls and Balance Research Group | Lord S.R.,University of New South Wales | Delbaere K.,Falls and Balance Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders | Year: 2012

Background/Aims: Cognitively impaired older people are at twice the risk of falls compared to cognitively intact, with approximately 60% falling once or more per year. This study aimed to investigate sensorimotor and balance risk factors for falls in cognitively impaired older people. Methods: 177 community-dwelling older people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination < 24, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised < 83) were assessed using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). Falls were recorded prospectively for 12 months using monthly calendars with the assistance of carers. Results: Seventy-one participants (43%) fell ≥2 times in the follow-up period. Impaired simple reaction time, postural sway, leaning balance and increased PPA fall risk score were significantly associated with multiple falls. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the PPA model including tests of vision, proprioception, knee extension strength, reaction time, postural sway and leaning balance was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.83). Conclusion: These findings indicate poor performance on physiological fall risk factors, particularly balance, increases the risk of falls in older cognitively impaired people. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Wilde A.,University of New South Wales | Wilde A.,Black Dog Institute | Meiser B.,Prince of Wales Clinical School | Mitchell P.B.,University of New South Wales | And 5 more authors.
Psychiatric Genetics | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the self-rated competencies and perceived roles of medical geneticists, genetic counselors, and psychiatrists in the communication of genetic risk for psychiatric disorders to patients and families at an increased risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, and their perspectives on training needs in this field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinically active members of the Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA) and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) were invited to complete the online survey. A total of 157 responses were included in data analysis: 17 medical geneticists, 36 genetics counselors, and 104 psychiatrists. RESULTS: In all, 34.4% of the respondents disagreed that their professional training had prepared them to discuss genetic information about psychiatric illnesses with patients. Medical geneticists perceived significantly higher levels of self-rated competency to discuss with patients and families genetic information on psychiatric disorders compared with genetic counselors and psychiatrists (t=-0.61, P=0.001; β=0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.49, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest deficiencies in education and training programs on how to best communicate psychiatric genetic risk information to patients, suggesting that specialist programs are needed to better support health professionals. As self-rated competencies differed among the professional groups, training programs need to be tailored to participants' professional backgrounds. ©2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Bye W.,Gastrointestinal and Liver Unit | Ishaq N.,Gastrointestinal and Liver Unit | Bolin T.D.,Gastrointestinal and Liver Unit | Duncombe V.M.,Gastrointestinal and Liver Unit | Riordan S.M.,Prince of Wales Clinical School
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Culture-independent molecular techniques have demonstrated that the majority of the gut microbiota is uncultivable. Application of these molecular techniques to more accurately identify the indigenous gut microbiome has moved with great pace over recent years, leading to a substantial increase in understanding of gut microbial communities in both health and a number of disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Use of culture-independent molecular techniques already employed to characterise faecal and, to a lesser extent, colonic mucosal microbial populations in IBS, without reliance on insensitive, traditional microbiological culture techniques, has the potential to more accurately determine microbial composition in the small intestine of patients with this disorder, at least that occurring proximally and within reach of sampling. Current data concerning culture-based and culture-independent analyses of the small intestinal microbiome in IBS are considered here. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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