Naeem A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology |
Drackley J.K.,Urbana University |
Lanier J.S.,Urbana University |
Lanier J.S.,Prince Agri Products Inc. |
And 4 more authors.
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2014
This study assessed the effects of enhanced dietary plane of nutrition (early nutritional program (ENH)) on the gene expression pattern of ruminal epithelial tissue of young Holstein calves. Male Holstein calves were fed (3 to 42 days of age) with reconstituted control milk replacer (MR) (20 % crude protein, 20 % fat; 1.25 lb solids/calf) plus conventional starter (CON; 19.6 % crude protein, dry matter basis) or a high-protein MR (ENH; 28.5 % crude protein, 15 % fat; at around 2 % of body weight) plus high-crude protein starter (25.5 % crude protein, dry matter basis). The calves were weaned on day 43. Groups of calves in CON and ENH treatment were harvested after 5 and 10 weeks of feeding. The ruminal epithelium from five calves in each group was used for transcript profiling using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. The postweaning mass of the reticulo-rumen was greater (P∈<∈0.01) in calves consuming ENH. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 208 genes were altered due to treatment and 587 due to time alone. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that "galactose metabolism," "citrate cycle," "pyruvate metabolism," and "basal transcription factors" were the most impacted and induced pathways due to feeding ENH; whereas, "valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis" and "glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism" were among the most inhibited. The integrated interpretation of the results suggested an overall increase in metabolism after weaning, particularly biosynthesis of glycan and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, the preweaning alterations in the transcriptome were mostly associated with cell growth, death, tissue development, and cellular morphology. The postweaning response revealed overexpression of genes associated with cell adhesion molecules, p53 signaling, and fatty acid metabolism. Our results indicated that feeding ENH to young Holstein calves elicited a strong transcriptomic response in the ruminal epithelial tissue. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Zanzalari K.P.,Prince Agri Products Inc. |
Chapman J.D.,Prince Agri Products Inc.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014
Forty-five multiparous Holstein cows and 15 springing Holstein heifers were used in a randomized block design trial to determine the effect of length of feeding a negative dietary anion-cation difference (DCAD) diet prepartum on serum and urine metabolites, dry matter (DM) intake, and milk yield and composition. After training to eat through Calan doors (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH), cows within parity were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments and fed a negative-DCAD diet for 3 (3W), 4 (4W), or 6 wk (6W) before predicted calving. Actual days cows were fed negative-DCAD diets was 19.2 ± 4.1, 27.9 ± 3.1, and 41.5 ± 4.1d for 3W, 4W, and 6W, respectively. Before the trial, all cows were fed a high-forage, low-energy diet. During the trial, cows were fed a diet formulated for late gestation (14.6% CP, 42.3% NDF, 20.5% starch, 7.1% ash, and 0.97% Ca) supplemented with Animate (Prince Agri Products Inc., Quincy, IL), with a resulting DCAD (Na + K - Cl - S) of -21.02 mEq/100 g of DM. After calving, cows were fed a diet formulated for early lactation (18.0% CP, 36.4% NDF, 24.2% starch, 8.1% ash, and 0.94% Ca) for the following 6 wk with a DCAD of 20.55 mEq/100 g of DM. Urine pH was not different among treatments before calving and averaged 6.36. No differences were observed in prepartum DM intake, which averaged 11.4, 11.5, and 11.7 kg/d for 3W, 4W, and 6W, respectively. Prepartum serum total protein, albumin, and Ca concentrations, and anion gap were within normal limits but decreased linearly with increasing time cows were fed a negative-DCAD diet. No differences were observed in serum metabolite concentrations on the day of calving. Postpartum, serum total protein and globulin concentrations increased linearly with increasing length of time the negative-DCAD diet was fed. No differences were observed in postpartum DM intake, milk yield, or concentration of fat or protein among treatments: 19.1 kg/d, 40.6 kg/d, 4.30%, and 2.80%; 19.6 kg/d, 41.5 kg/d, 4.50%, and 2.90%; and 18.6 kg/d, 41.0 kg/d, 4.30%, and 2.73% for 3W, 4W, and 6W, respectively. Results of this trial indicate that no differences existed in health or milk production or components in cows fed a negative-DCAD diet for up to 6 wk prepartum compared with those fed a negative-DCAD diet for 3 or 4 wk prepartum. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2013-05-14
Food additives, namely, chemical additives for use in the manufacture of animal fodder. Feed supplements for livestock and companion animals; mold inhibiting chemicals and formulations for treating livestock feed, grain, and forages; non-medicated nutritional additives for livestock feed for use as nutritional supplements; mineral supplements; chemicals, enzymes, food and beverage manufacturing byproducts, plant protein, oils, silica-based powders, and solubles for use as dietary supplements.
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2016-01-26
Direct-fed microbials in the nature of non-enzymatic live micro-organisms only for use in non-human animal health and nutrition channels of trade as livestock feed supplements for immunological and growth promotion uses.
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2010-09-14
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2010-09-28
Anti-caking agent for use in the manufacture of animal feed; and pelleting aid for use in the manufacture of animal feed. Anti-caking agent sold as an ingredient in animal feed; and pelleting aid sold as an ingredient in animal feed.
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2010-08-17
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2011-12-16
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2014-08-07
Prince Agri Products Inc. | Date: 2014-09-26
Microbials for direct feed to livestock, namely non-enzymatic live micro-organisms for immunological and growth promotion uses.