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Tsuchiura, Japan

Takeda K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tasai M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Akagi S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Matsukawa K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 8 more authors.
Mitochondrion | Year: 2010

Microinjection of isolated mitochondria into oocytes is an effective method to introduce exogenous mitochondrial DNA. In nuclear transfer procedures in which donor cell mitochondria are transferred with nuclei into recipient oocytes; development and survival rates of reconstructed embryos may be also directly influenced by mitochondrial viability. Mitochondrial viability is dramatically affected by cell culture conditions, such as serum starvation prior to nuclear transfer. This study was conducted to examine the influence of exogenous mitochondria using bovine and mouse parthenogenetic models. Mitochondria were isolated from primary cells at confluency and after serum starvation. The bovine oocytes injected with serum-starved mitochondria showed lower rates of morula and blastocyst formation when compared to uninjected controls (P < 0.05). However, the developmental rates between non-starved mitochondria injection and controls were not different (P > 0.05). The murine oocytes injected with serum-starved mitochondria showed lower rates of development when compared with non-starved mitochondria and controls (P < 0.01). In contrast to mitochondria transfer, ooplasm transfer did not affect murine or bovine parthenogenetic development (P > 0.05). The overall results showed that injection of serum-starved mitochondria influenced parthenogenetic development of both bovine and murine oocytes. Our results illustrate that the somatic mitochondria introduction accompanying nuclei has the capacity to affect reconstructed embryo development; particularly when using serum-starved cells as donor cells. © 2009 Mitochondria Research Society. Source


Sembon S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Fuchimoto D.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Iwamoto M.,Prime Technology Ltd | Suzuki S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The objective was to produce porcine tetraploid parthenogenetic embryos using cytochalasin B, which inhibits polar body extrusion. Porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes aspirated from antral follicles were cultured for 51 h, and treated with cytochalasin B from 35 h to 42 h after the start of culture. After maturation culture, 74.7% (2074/2775) of oocytes treated with cytochalasin B did not extrude a polar body (0PB oocytes). In contrast, 80.4% (1931/2403) of control oocytes extruded a polar body (1PB oocytes). The 0PB oocytes were electrically stimulated, treated with cytochalasin B again for 3 h, and then cultured without cytochalasin B. Six days after electrical stimulation, 49.8% (321/644) reached the blastocyst stage. The number of cells in these blastocysts derived from 0PB oocytes was significantly lower than that from 1PB oocytes (0PB: 24.9 10.6; 1PB: 43.0 17.1; mean SD). A porcine chromosome 1-specific sequence was detected in parthenogenetic 0PB embryos by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Typical pronucleus-stage samples derived from 0PB embryos had two pronuclei, each with two signals. In two-cell and blastocyst-stage embryos, four signals were detected in each nucleus derived from 0PB embryos. We inferred that 0PB oocytes, which had a tetraploid number of chromosomes, started to develop as tetraploid parthenotes after electrical stimulation, and that tetraploid status was stably maintained during early embryonic development, at least until the blastocyst stage. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Sembon S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Iwamoto M.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Hashimoto M.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Oishi T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

In livestock, parthenogenic embryos are simple to produce, but androgenetic embryos have been successfully produced only in sheep and cows. In the present study, matured porcine oocytes were enucleated by micromanipulation and then fertilized with sperm in vitro, thereby producing porcine androgenetic embryos. Porcine androgenetic embryos, which had only sperm genomes, were assessed for cleavage and for blastocyst formation 2 and 6 d after IVF, respectively. There was no difference in cleavage rate between androgenetic embryos and biparental IVF embryos (mean ± SD androgenetic: 65.5 ± 5.4%; biparental IVF: 63.2 ± 3.6%), but there was a difference in the rate of blastocyst formation (androgenetic: 4.5 ± 0.7%; biparental IVF: 30.2 ± 2.6%, P < 0.05). The average number of cells in Day 6 androgenetic blastocysts (34.3 ± 18.2) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in biparental IVF blastocysts (44.1 ± 19.5), but did not differ from that in parthenogenetic embryos (35.7 ± 16.7). The androgenetic embryos were transferred into recipient mothers to examine the competence of post-implantation development. Androgenetic fetuses were present on Days 21 and 25, but not on Days 28, 31, or 35. Of the six androgenetic fetuses recovered on Day 21, five had normal, translucent bodies, and two of these five had beating hearts. The four fetuses recovered on Day 25 were all non-viable. In conclusion, porcine androgenetic embryos initiated embryogenesis and had reached a viable fetal stage 21 days after IVF. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Takeda K.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Tasai M.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Iwamoto M.,Prime Technology Ltd | Oe M.,Japan National Food Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2012

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been exploited in efforts to clone and propagate valuable animal lineages. However, in many instances, recipient oocytes are obtained from sources independent of donor cell populations. As such, influences of potential nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility, post SCNT, are largely unknown. In the present study, alterations in mitochondrial protein levels were investigated in adult SCNT pigs produced by microinjection of Meishan pig fetus fibroblast cells into enucleated matured oocytes (maternal Landrace genetic background). Mitochondrial fractions were prepared from liver samples by mechanical homogenization and differential centrifugation. Liver mitochondria were then subjected to two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Protein expression changes were confirmed with a volume ratio greater than 2 fold (P < 0.05). 2-D DIGE analysis further revealed differential expression of three proteins between the Meishan (n=3) and Landrace (n=3) breeds. Differential expression patterns of 16 proteins were detected in SCNT pig liver tissue (n=3) when compared with Meishan control samples. However, none of the 16 proteins correlated with the three differentially expressed Meishan and Landrace liver mitochondrial proteins. In summary, alteration of mitochondrial protein expression levels was observed in adult SCNT pigs that did not reflect the breed difference of the recipient oocytes. Comparative proteomic analysis represents an important tool for further studies on SCNT animals. © 2012 by the Society for Reproduction and Development. Source


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