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Sokhumi, Georgia

Kim M.-S.,University of Tokyo | Sakurai T.,University of Tokyo | Bai H.,University of Tokyo | Bai R.,University of Tokyo | And 6 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

Interferon-tau (IFNT) is thought to be the conceptus protein that signals maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. We and others have observed that OCT4 expression persists in the trophectoderm of ruminants; thus, both CDX2 and OCT4 coexist during the early stages of conceptus development. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of CDX2 and OCT4 on IFNT gene transcription when evaluated with other transcription factors. Human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells were cotransfected with an ovine IFNT (-654-bp)-luciferase reporter (-654-IFNT-Luc) construct and several transcription factor expression plasmids. Cotransfection of the reporter construct with Cdx2, Ets2 and Jun increased transcription of -654-IFNT-Luc by about 12-fold compared with transfection of the construct alone. When cells were initially transfected with Oct4 (0 h) followed by transfection with Cdx2, Ets2 and/or Jun 24 h later, the expression of -654-IFNT-Luc was reduced to control levels. OCT4 also inhibited the stimulatory activity of CDX2 alone, but not when CDX2 was combined with JUN and/or ETS2. Thus, when combined with the other transcription factors, OCT4 exhibited little inhibitory activity towards CDX2. An inhibitor of the transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein (CREBBP), 12S E1A, reduced CDX2/ETS2/JUN stimulated -654-IFNT-Luc expression by about 40%, indicating that the formation of an appropriate transcription factor complex is required for maximum expression. In conclusion, the presence of OCT4 may initially minimize IFNT expression; however, as elongation proceeds, the increasing expression of CDX2 and formation of the transcription complex leads to greatly increased IFNT expression, resulting in pregnancy establishment in ruminants. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source

Taher A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Taher A.,State University of Papua | Solihin D.D.,Bogor Agricultural University | Sulistiyani,Bogor Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Biodiversitas | Year: 2016

Taher A, Solihin DD, Sulistiyani, Sajuthi D, Astuti DA. 2016. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism within the LDLR gene and responsiveness of cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) to atherogenic diet. Biodiversitas 17: 430-434. Genetic variation within low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene has been associated with normal variation of plasma lipid profiles and risks of coronary heart diseases (CHD) in human. Although cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is one of non-human primates commonly used as models in atherosclerosis research, little is known about the extent of polymorphism within the LDLR gene and its consequences on responsiveness to atherogenic diet. In this study, two regions of LDLR gene, namely exon 6 and intron 5, were sequenced in a sample of 22 male cynomolgus macaques which had differences in responsiveness to atherogenic diet. The objective of the study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the LDLR gene and to evaluate the kinds of haplotypes in relation to the responsiveness of the cynomolgus macaque to atherogenic diet. Sequence analysis revealed that there were two SNPs at exon 6, i.e. IVS5-6C > G and 825C > G, which were distributed in 3 haplotypes, and five SNPs at intron 5, i.e. g.IVS5+99T > C, g.IVS5+173G > T, g.IVS5+327A > G, g.IVS5−96C > T, and g.IVS5−6C > G, which were distributed in 6 haplotypes. It was found that haplotype II (GC) at 6 base pairs prior to the exon 6 and haplotype III (CGGTG) within the intron 5 were associated with hyporesponsiveness to atherogenic diet. The results showed that potential SNP existed within the exon 6 and intron 5 can be used as genetic markers for selecting hypo- from hyperresponders. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All right reserved. Source

Bobbert M.F.,VU University Amsterdam | Plas R.L.C.,VU University Amsterdam | Weide G.,VU University Amsterdam | Clairbois H.E.,VU University Amsterdam | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

In this study we determined the mechanical output of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during jumping. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured in 18 animals while they jumped from an instrumented crossbar to a crossbar located 70 cm higher. From the vertical force time histories, we calculated the rate of change of mechanical energy of the centre of mass (dE/dt). The mean value of dE/dt during the push-off amounted to 51.8±6.2 W kg-1 body mass, and the peak value to 116.4±17.6 W kg-1 body mass. We used these values in combination with masses of leg muscles, determined in two specimens, to estimate mean and peak values of dE/dt of 430 and 970 W kg-1 muscle, respectively. These values are higher than values reported in the literature for jumps of humans and bonobos, but smaller than those of jumps of bushbabies. Surprisingly, the mean value of dE/dt of 430 W kg-1 muscle was close to the maximal power output of 516 W kg-1 muscle reported in the literature for isokinetic contractions of rat medial gastrocnemius, one of the fastest mammalian muscles. Further study of the force-velocity relationship of muscle tissue of small primates is indicated. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Dzhokua A.A.,Primate Research Center | Barkaya V.S.,Primate Research Center | Kulava Z.V.,Primate Research Center | Mikvabiya Z.Y.,Primate Research Center
Human Physiology | Year: 2014

The results of studies on the biological effects of the prolonged administration of physiological doses of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on behavior and state of the higher nervous activity (HNA) in old rhesus macaques that had reached the limit of biological age are presented. HNA was investigated using the procedure of motor-alimentary conditioned reflexes, which allows assessing the long-term (conditioned-reflex) memory in animals. The state of short-term (working) memory was evaluated using the test of delayed response performance. DHEA was administered intramuscularly in peach oil at a dose of 1 mg/kg every two days for three months. DHEA at the doses used improved HNA and balanced the excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain. The motor activity and alimentary motivation were increased. The woolliness lost was restored in old monkeys under the action of DHEA; this effect persisting for a year. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

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