Primate Products Inc.

Immokalee, FL, United States

Primate Products Inc.

Immokalee, FL, United States
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Satkoski Trask J.,University of California at Davis | George D.,University of California at Davis | Houghton P.,Primate Products Inc. | Kanthaswamy S.,University of California at Davis | Smith D.G.,University of California at Davis
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17th century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although previous genetic studies have reported Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to be panmictic, the individuals included in these studies were either from the southern/central or an unknown portion of the island. In this study, we sampled individuals broadly throughout the entire island of Mauritius and used spatial principle component analysis to measure the fine-scale correlation between geographic and genetic distance in this population. A stronger correlation between geographic and genetic distance was found among animals in the north than in those in the southern and central portions of the island. We found no difference in body weight between the two groups, despite anecdotal evidence to the contrary. We hypothesize that the increased genetic structure among populations in the north is related to a reduction in dispersal distance brought about by human habitation and tourist infrastructure, but too recent to have produced true genetic differentiation. © 2013 Satkoski Trask et al.


Satkoski Trask J.A.,University of California at Davis | Garnica W.T.,University of California at Davis | Smith D.G.,University of California at Davis | Houghton P.,Primate Products Inc. | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013

Both phenotypic and genetic evidence for asymmetric hybridization between rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques has been observed in the region of Indochina where both species are sympatric. The large-scale sharing of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles between the two species in this region supports the hypothesis that genes, and especially genes involved in immune response, are being transferred across the species boundary. This differential introgression has important implications for the incorporation of cynomolgus macaques of unknown geographic origin in biomedical research protocols. Our study found that for 2,808 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, the minor allele frequencies (MAF) and observed heterozygosity calculated from a sample of Vietnamese cynomolgus macaques was significantly different from those calculated from samples of both Chinese rhesus and Indonesian cynomolgus macaques. SNP alleles from Chinese rhesus macaques were overrepresented in a sample of Vietnamese cynomolgus macaques relative to their Indonesian conspecifics and located in genes functionally related to the primary immune system. These results suggest that Indochinese cynomolgus macaques represent a genetically and immunologically distinct entity from Indonesian cynomolgus macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Smith D.G.,University of California at Davis | Ng J.,University of California at Davis | George D.,University of California at Davis | Trask J.S.,University of California at Davis | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2014

Two subspecies of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are alleged to co-exist in the Philippines, M. f. philippensis in the north and M. f. fascicularis in the south. However, genetic differences between the cynomolgus macaques in the two regions have never been studied to document the propriety of their subspecies status. We genotyped samples of cynomolgus macaques from Batangas in southwestern Luzon and Zamboanga in southwestern Mindanao for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci and sequenced an 835 bp fragment of the mtDNA of these animals. The STR genotypes were compared with those of cynomolgus macaques from southern Sumatra, Singapore, Mauritius and Cambodia, and the mtDNA sequences of both Philippine populations were compared with those of cynomolgus macaques from southern Sumatra, Indonesia and Sarawak, Malaysia. We conducted STRUCTURE and PCA analyses based on the STRs and constructed a median joining network based on the mtDNA sequences. The Philippine population from Batangas exhibited much less genetic diversity and greater genetic divergence from all other populations, including the Philippine population from Zamboanga. Sequences from both Batangas and Zamboanga were most closely related to two different mtDNA haplotypes from Sarawak from which they are apparently derived. Those from Zamboanga were more recently derived than those from Batangas, consistent with their later arrival in the Philippines. However, clustering analyses do not support a sufficient genetic distinction of cynomolgus macaques from Batangas from other regional populations assigned to subspecies M. f. fascicularis to warrant the subspecies distinction M. f. philippensis. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:136-148, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Premasuthan A.,University of California at Davis | Ng J.,University of California at Davis | Kanthaswamy S.,University of California at Davis | Trask J.S.,University of California at Davis | And 6 more authors.
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2012

Macaques are commonly used in biomedical research as animal models of human disease. The ABO phenotype of donors and recipients plays an important role in the success of transplantation and stem cell research of both human and macaque tissue. Traditional serological methods for ABO phenotyping can be time consuming, provide ambiguous results and/or require tissue that is unavailable or unsuitable. We developed a novel method to detect the A, B, and AB phenotypes of macaques using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This method enables the simple and rapid screening of these phenotypes in macaques without the need for fresh blood or saliva. This study reports the distribution of the A, B, and AB phenotypes of captive cynomolgus macaques that, while regionally variable, closely resembles that of rhesus macaques. Blood group B, as in rhesus macaques, predominates in cynomolgus macaques and its frequency distribution leads to a probability of major incompatibility of 41%. No silencing mutations have been identified in exon 6 or 7 in macaques that could be responsible for the O phenotype, that, although rare, have been reported. The excess homozygosity of rhesus and cynomolgus macaque genotypes in this study, that assumes the absence of the O allele, suggests the possibility of some mechanism preventing the expression of the A and B transferases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Kanthaswamy S.,University of California at Davis | Ng J.,University of California at Davis | Trask J.S.,University of California at Davis | George D.A.,University of California at Davis | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2013

Background: The genetic composition of cynomolgus macaques used in biomedical research is not as well-characterized as that of rhesus macaques. Methods: Populations of cynomolgus macaques from Sumatra, Corregidor, Mauritius, Singapore, Cambodia, and Zamboanga were analyzed using 24 STRs. Results: The Sumatran and Cambodian populations exhibited the highest allelic diversity, while the Mauritian population exhibited the lowest. Sumatran cynomolgus macaques were the most genetically similar to all others, consistent with an Indonesian origin of the species. The high diversity among Cambodian animals may result from interbreeding with rhesus macaques. The Philippine and Mauritian samples were the most divergent from other populations, the former due to separation from the Sunda Shelf by deepwater and the latter due to anthropogenic translocation and extreme founder effects. Conclusions: Investigators should verify their research subjects' origin, ancestry, and pedigree to minimize risks to biomedical experimentation from genetic variance stemming from close kinship and mixed ancestry as these can obscure treatment effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Kanthaswamy S.,University of California at Davis | Trask J.S.,University of California at Davis | Ross C.T.,University of California at Davis | Kou A.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2012

Some breeding facilities in the United States have crossbred Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) founders either purposefully or inadvertently. Genetic variation that reflects geographic origins among research subjects has the potential to influence experimental outcomes. The use of animals from different geographic regions, their hybrids, and animals of varying degrees of kinship in an experiment can obscure treatment effects under study because high interanimal genetic variance can increase phenotypic variance among the research subjects. The intent of this study, based on a broad genomic analysis of 2,808 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), is to ensure that only animals estimated to be of pure Indian or Chinese ancestry, based on both demographic and genetic information, are used as sources of infants for derivation and expansion of the California National Primate Research Center's (CNPRC) super-Specific Pathogen Free (SSPF) rhesus macaque colony. Studies of short tandem repeats (STRs) in Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques have reported that heterozygosity of STRs is higher in Chinese rhesus macaques than in Indian rhesus macaques. The present study shows that heterozygosity of SNPs is actually higher in Indian than in Chinese rhesus macaques and that the Chinese SSPF rhesus macaque colony is far less differentiated from their founders compared to the Indian-origin animals. The results also reveal no evidence of recent gene flow from long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques into the source populations of the SSPF rhesus macaques. This study indicates that many of the long-tailed macaques held in the CNPRC are closely related individuals. Most polymorphisms shared among the captive rhesus, long-tailed, and pig-tailed macaques likely predate the divergence among these groups. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zhang X.,University of California at Davis | Kadir K.A.,University Malaysia Sarawak | Quintanilla-Zarinan L.F.,University of California at Davis | Villano J.,University of Michigan | And 4 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2016

Background: Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi are two malaria parasites naturally transmissible between humans and wild macaque through mosquito vectors, while Plasmodium inui can be experimentally transmitted from macaques to humans. One of their major natural hosts, the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), is host to two other species of Plasmodium (Plasmodium fieldi and Plasmodium coatneyi) and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. This study aims to determine the distribution of wild macaques infected with malarial parasites by examining samples derived from seven populations in five countries across Southeast Asia. Methods: Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. coatneyi, P. inui and P. fieldi, were detected using nested PCR assays in DNA samples from 276 wild-caught long-tailed macaques. These samples had been derived from macaques captured at seven locations, two each in the Philippines (n = 68) and Indonesia (n = 70), and one each in Cambodia (n = 54), Singapore (n = 40) and Laos (n = 44). The results were compared with previous studies of malaria parasites in long-tailed macaques from other locations in Southeast Asia. Fisher exact test and Chi square test were used to examine the geographic bias of the distribution of Plasmodium species in the macaque populations. Results: Out of 276 samples tested, 177 were Plasmodium-positive, with P. cynomolgi being the most common and widely distributed among all long-tailed macaque populations (53.3 %) and occurring in all populations examined, followed by P. coatneyi (20.4 %), P. inui (12.3 %), P. fieldi (3.4 %) and P. knowlesi (0.4 %). One P. knowlesi infection was detected in a macaque from Laos, representing the first documented case of P. knowlesi in wildlife in Laos. Chi square test showed three of the five parasites (P. knowlesi, P. coatneyi, P. cynomolgi) with significant bias in prevalence towards macaques from Malaysian Borneo, Cambodia, and Southern Sumatra, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of malaria parasites, including those that are transmissible to humans, varied among all sampled regional populations of long-tailed macaques in Southeast Asia. The new discovery of P. knowlesi infection in Laos, and the high prevalence of P. cynomolgi infections in wild macaques in general, indicate the strong need of public advocacy in related countries. © 2016 The Author(s).


Kolappaswamy K.,Harlan Laboratories Inc. | Nazareno J.,Primate Products Inc. | Porter W.P.,Harlan Laboratories Inc. | Klein H.J.,Fox Chase Cancer Center
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2014

Background: Pathogenic Escherichia coli has been identified as an etiologic agent in humans causing acute diarrhea or even death but has been rarely reported in non-human primates (NHP). An outbreak of diarrhea occurred in an outdoor-housed NHP colony over a period of 2 months with an attack rate of 29%. Methods: Bacterial culture and PCR were performed on the fecal specimens to identify enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in the NHPs. Results: By random sampling of 10% of fecal samples of diarrheal cases, four cases of EIEC in rhesus macaques and two cases of EHEC in cynomolgus macaques were confirmed. Conclusion: This is the first time EIEC and EHEC have been reported in NHPs associated with diarrhea. The primary source of infection could not be determined. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Trademark
Primate Products Inc. | Date: 2015-03-03

Laboratory cages for animals. Collars for animals; Pet restraining devices consisting of pole and collar and restraining chair for use in veterinary care and medical research studies. Animal training. Boarding for animals. Animal breeding; Animal husbandry; Genetic testing of animals for diagnostic or treatment purposes.


Trademark
Primate Products Inc. | Date: 2012-04-06

Computer software for managing the electronic medical records in veterinary and laboratory animal research facilities.

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