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Halperin S.A.,Dalhousie University | Gupta A.,Albion Finch Medical Center | Jeanfreau R.,Benchmark Research | Klein N.P.,Kaiser Permanente | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Background: Routine administration of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine to adolescents and certain high risk groups is recommended in the United States and Canada. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM-197 (MenACWY-CRM) with a licensed quadrivalent vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MCV4) in children aged 2-10 years. Methods: Eligible 2-5-year-olds were randomized 1:2:2 to receive either 2 doses of MenACWY-CRM, or 1 dose of MenACWY-CRM or MCV4; 6-10-year-olds were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of MenACWY-CRM or MCV4. The primary immunogenicity assessment was seroresponse separately for the two age cohorts 28 days following a single dose of MenACWY-CRM or MCV4. Noninferiority and superiority criteria were predefined. Solicited injection-site and systemic reactions were collected for the 7 days postvaccination. Results: A total of 2907 children were randomized to receive study vaccine. MenACWY-CRM met statistical superiority criteria vs. MCV4 for groups W and Y and was noninferior for group C in both age strata. For group A, noninferiority criteria were not met; the group A seroresponse rates for MenACWY-CRM and MCV4, respectively were 72% (95% confidence interval 68-75%) and 77% (73-80%) in 2-5-year-olds and 77% (73-80%) and 83% (79-86%) in 6-10-year-olds. When the two age strata were combined (2-10-year-old children), MenACWY-CRM was noninferior to MCV4 for all four groups, and statistically superior for groups C, W, and Y. Safety parameters were similar across age cohorts and vaccines groups. Conclusions: MenACWY-CRM and MCV4 were immunogenic and well tolerated in children aged 2-10 years. Seroresponse to MenACWY-CRM was statistically noninferior to MCV4 for all groups, and statistically superior for groups C, W, and Y. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00616421. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Halperin S.A.,Dalhousie University | McNeil S.,Dalhousie University | Langley J.,Dalhousie University | Blatter M.,Primary Physicians Research Inc | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Background: Although decennial adult boosters of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are recommended in Canada and the United States, a second dose of pertussis vaccine is not currently recommended for adults. Methods: This open-label, postmarketing, multicenter study evaluated the tolerability and immunogenicity of a second dose of an adult formulation of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in adolescents and adults 5 years after a first dose. Results: A total of 545 participants from previous Tdap vaccine studies, ranging in age from 15 to 69 years, participated in this study. Of these participants, 94.2% had at least one solicited adverse event after the booster dose such as injection-site erythema (28.6%), swelling (25.6%), or pain (87.6%) or a systemic adverse event such as myalgia (61.0%), headache (53.2%), malaise (38.2%), or fever (6.5%). These adverse events were slightly more frequent than after the initial dose. Postvaccination, 100% of participants had a tetanus antibody level ≥0.10. IU/mL and 95% had a diphtheria antibody level ≥0.10. IU/mL. For pertussis, 82.1% (pertussis toxoid), 96.7% (filamentous hemagglutinin), 95.6% (pertactin), and 99.8% (fimbriae) had a postvaccination antibody threshold of ≥50. EU/mL. Conclusion: A second dose of Tdap vaccine 5 years after the initial dose was well tolerated and immunogenic in adolescents and adults. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Rinderknecht S.,Iowa Health Physicians | Michaels M.G.,Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh | Blatter M.,Primary Physicians Research Inc | Gaglani M.,Texas A&M University | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A vaccination in early childhood has reduced hepatitis A transmission. Coadministration of hepatitis A vaccine with other childhood vaccines may assist completion of the age-appropriate immunization schedule. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine when coadministered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines in children less than 2 years of age. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized, multicenter study, 3 groups of healthy children 15 months of age received either 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine 6 to 9 months apart (n = 324), hepatitis A vaccine coadministered with MMR and varicella vaccines and a second dose of hepatitis A vaccine 6 to 9 months later (n = 462), or MMR and varicella vaccines followed 6 weeks later by 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine 6 to 9 months apart (n = 455). Immune responses were evaluated at baseline, 31 days after the second dose of hepatitis A vaccine, and 42 days after MMR and varicella vaccine administration. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were collected. RESULTS: After 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine, nearly all subjects in all groups were seropositive (≥99%). Coadministration of hepatitis A vaccine with MMR and varicella vaccines did not impact the immunogenicity of any of the vaccines and was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response to hepatitis A vaccine and US-licensed MMR and varicella vaccines is not adversely affected when coadministered in children 15 months of age. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Einstein M.H.,Yeshiva University | Levin M.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Chatterjee A.,University of South Dakota | Chakhtoura N.,University of Miami | And 26 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

We previously reported higher anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine compared with HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine at Month 7 (one month after completion of full vaccination series) in women aged 18-45 y in an observer-blind study NCT00423046; the differences of immune response magnitudes were maintained up to Month 24. Here we report follow-up data through Month 48. At Month 48, in according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), geometric mean titers of serum neutralizing antibodies were 2.0- to 5.2-fold higher (HPV-16) and 8.6- to 12.8-fold higher (HPV-18) in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. The majority of women in both vaccine groups remained seropositive for HPV-16. The same trend was observed for HPV-18 in HPV-16/18 vaccine group; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably, particularly in the older age groups. In the total vaccinated cohort (regardless of baseline serological and HPV-DNA status), anti-HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibody levels induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine were higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. CD4+ T-cell response for HPV-16 and HPV-18 was higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Memory B-cell responses appeared similar between vaccine groups. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Overall, the higher immune response observed with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was maintained up to Month 48. A head-to-head study incorporating clinical endpoints would be required to confirm whether the observed differences in immune response between the vaccines influence the duration of protection they provided. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Lasekan J.B.,Abbott Laboratories | Jacobs J.,Abbott Laboratories | Reisinger K.S.,Primary Physicians Research Inc | Montalto M.B.,Abbott Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Lactose, the major carbohydrate in human milk and standard milk-based formulas, provides energy for growth in infants. The use of lactose-free milk protein-based infant formulas has increased in the United States. However, clinical studies of their impact on growth, safety, and gastrointestinal tolerance in infants are limited. Thus, a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial was conducted in healthy, normal-term infants fed an experimental lactose-free milk protein-based formula (NoLAC; n = 63) versus a standard commercial lactose-containing milk-based formula (LAC; n = 65) for 112 days. Growth (weight, length, and head circumference) was similar and normal in both groups (weight gain: NoLAC = 31.1 ± 0.9 g/day, LAC = 29.4 ± 0.9 g/day, mean ± SEM; P =.895). Serum biochemistries for both groups were within infants' normal reference ranges. Both groups had comparable tolerance but the NoLAC group had softer stools and lower spit-ups. Thus, the study suggests that absence of lactose in milk-based formula does not adversely affect normal growth in term infants. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

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