Primary Health Care Unit

Oslo, Norway

Primary Health Care Unit

Oslo, Norway
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McDonnell J.,Evaluation Research Support Unit | Barnes A.,Arnhem Land Progress Aboriginal Corporation | Dhurrkay J.G.,YaluMarnggithinyaraw Center | Bailie R.S.,Primary Health Care Unit
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2010

Objective: To examine the impact of a government income management program on store sales. Design and setting: An interrupted time series analysis of sales data in 10 stores in 10 remote Northern Territory communities during 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2009, which included an 18-month period before income management; a 4-6-month period after the introduction of income management; a 3-month period that coincided with a government stimulus payment; and the remaining income-management period. Main outcome measures: Trends in (i) total store sales; (ii) total food and beverage sales; (iii) fruit and vegetables sales; (iv) soft drink sales; and v) tobacco sales. Results: Modest monthly increases indicative of inflation were found for all outcome measures before the introduction of income management, except for soft drink sales, which remained constant. No change from the increasing rate of monthly sales before income management was seen in the first 4-6 months of income management or for the income-management period thereafter for total store sales, food and beverage sales, fruit and vegetable sales and tobacco sales. The rate of soft drink sales declined significantly with the introduction of income management and then increased significantly thereafter. The 3-month government stimulus payment period (during the period of income management) was associated with a significant increase in the rate of sales for all outcome measures. Conclusion: Income management independent of the government stimulus payment appears to have had no beneficial effect on tobacco and cigarette sales, soft drink or fruit and vegetable sales.


Tinderholt Myrhaug H.,Oslo University College | Ostensjo S.,Oslo University College | Larun L.,Primary Health Care Unit | Odgaard-Jensen J.,Global Health Unit | Jahnsen R.,University of Oslo
BMC pediatrics | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Young children with cerebral palsy (CP) receive a variety of interventions to prevent and/or reduce activity limitations and participation restrictions. Some of these interventions are intensive, and it is a challenge to identify the optimal intensity. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to describe and categorise intensive motor function and functional skills training among young children with CP, to summarise the effects of these interventions, and to examine characteristics that may contribute to explain the variations in these effects.METHODS: Ten databases were searched for controlled studies that included young children (mean age less than seven years old) with CP and assessments of the effects of intensive motor function and functional skills training. The studies were critically assessed by the Risk of bias tool (RoB) and categorised for intensity and contexts of interventions. Standardised mean difference were computed for outcomes, and summarised descriptively or in meta-analyses.RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies were included. Studies that targeted gross motor function were fewer, older and with lower frequency of training sessions over longer training periods than studies that targeted hand function. Home training was most common in studies on hand function and functional skills, and often increased the amount of training. The effects of constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) on hand function and functional skills were summarised in six meta-analyses, which supported the existing evidence of CIMT. In a majority of the included studies, equal improvements were identified between intensive intervention and conventional therapy or between two different intensive interventions.CONCLUSIONS: Different types of training, different intensities and different contexts between studies that targeted gross and fine motor function might explain some of the observed effect variations. Home training may increase the amount of training, but are less controllable. These factors may have contributed to the observed variations in the effectiveness of CIMT. Rigorous research on intensive gross motor training is needed.SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42013004023.


Austvoll-Dahlgren A.,Health Promotion and Organisation Unit | Danielsen S.,University of Oslo | Opheim E.,Innlandet Hospital Trust | Bjorndal A.,Regional Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health | And 6 more authors.
Health Information and Libraries Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Providing insight into the developmental processes involved in building interventions is an important way to ensure methodological transparency and inform future research efforts. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a web portal designed to improve health literacy skills among the public. Methods: The web portal was tailored to address three key barriers to obtaining information, using the conceptual frameworks of shared decision-making and evidence-based practice and based on explicit criteria for selecting the content and form of the intervention. Results: The web portal targeted the general public and took the form of structured sets of tools. Content included: an introduction to research methods, help on how to find evidence-based health information efficiently based on the steps of evidence-based practice, an introduction to critical appraisal, information about patient participation rights in decision-making, and a decision aid for consultations. Conclusions: The web portal was designed in a systematic and transparent way and address key barriers to obtaining and acting upon reliable health information. The web portal provides open access to the tools and can be used independently by health care users, or during consultations with health professionals. © 2013 Health Libraries Group.


Boman K.,Umeå University | Brenander A.,Primary Health Care Unit | Gustavsson M.,Primary Health Care Unit
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare | Year: 2014

We conducted a pilot trial of a remote blood pressure (BP) monitoring system, in which subjects measured their own BP at a primary healthcare centre. The data were wirelessly transmitted to the general practitioner. A total of 132 subjects with a new or prior diagnosis of hypertension were enrolled. Their mean age was 61 years and 77 were men (58%). They were followed for an average of 487 days (range 19-1110). The median number of BP measurements made was 6 per patient (range 2-49). The mean blood pressure decreased from 137/85 to 132/78 mmHg (P < 0.001) and the percentage of subjects with adequately controlled BP (defined as < 140/90 mmHg) increased from 47 to 66% (P < 0.01). Randomised trials are now required to confirm these findings. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Larun L.,Primary Health Care Unit | Odgaard-Jensen J.,Global Health Unit | Price J.R.,University of Oxford | Brurberg K.G.,Primary Health Care Unit
European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is estimated to affect between 2 in 1000 and 2 in 100 adults depending on how diagnostic criteria are applied. Patients with CFS have long-lasting fatigue in addition to symptoms including muscle pain, concentration and sleep problems. These symptoms cause significant disability and distress to the people affected. This review is an update of a previous Cochrane review (2004) that showed that exercise therapy was a promising treatment for adults with CFS. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy for patients with CFS. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Health care settings. POPULATION : Participants over 18 years with a primary diagnosis of CFS, able to attend an outpatient clinic for exercise therapy, were included. METHODS: We searched electronic databases, including SPORTD iscus, up to May 2014 using a comprehensive list of free-text terms for CFS and exercise. Randomized clinical trials from all health care settings with participants over 18 years with a primary diagnosis of CFS, able to attend an outpatient clinic for exercise therapy, were included. We have included 8 randomized clinical studies that reported data from 1518 participants. Seven studies used aerobic exercise such as walking, swimming, or cycling and one study used non-aerobic exercise. The exercise therapies lasted between 12 and 26 weeks. Meta-analysis was done when appropriate. RESULTS : Exercise therapy was more effective at reducing fatigue than "passive" treatments or no treatment at end of treatment. Exercise therapy also had a positive effect on people's daily physical functioning, sleep quality and self-rated overall health. Nearly twice as many patients reported improvement self-rated overall health after exercise therapy (40 per 100) compared to standard treatment (22 per 100). The evidence was too sparse and/or of too low quality to conclude if exercise therapy has an effect on pain, quality of life, anxiety or depression. Exercise therapy was not found to worsen symptoms for people with CFS, while serious side effects were rare in all exercise and comparison groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patiens with CFS may generally benefit from and feel less fatigued following exercise therapy, and no evidence suggests that exercise therapy may worsen outcomes. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT : Exercise therapy should be considered. © 2015 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.


Larun L.,Primary Health Care Unit | Brurberg K.G.,Primary Health Care Unit | Odgaard-Jensen J.,Primary Health Care Unit | Price J.R.,Primary Health Care Unit
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent, medically unexplained fatigue, as well as symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, headaches and impaired concentration and short-term memory. CFS presents as a common, debilitating and serious health problem. Treatment may include physical interventions, such as exercise therapy, which was last reviewed in 2004.OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy (ET) for patients with CFS as compared with any other intervention or control.• Exercise therapy versus 'passive control' (e.g. treatment as usual, waiting-list control, relaxation, flexibility).• Exercise therapy versus other active treatment (e.g. cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive treatment, supportive therapy, pacing, pharmacological therapy such as antidepressants).• Exercise therapy in combination with other specified treatment strategies versus other specified treatment strategies (e.g. exercise combined with pharmacological treatment vs pharmacological treatment alone).SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and SPORTDiscus up to May 2014 using a comprehensive list of free-text terms for CFS and exercise. We located unpublished or ongoing trials through the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to May 2014). We screened reference lists of retrieved articles and contacted experts in the field for additional studiesSELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials involving adults with a primary diagnosis of CFS who were able to participate in exercise therapy. Studies had to compare exercise therapy with passive control, psychological therapies, adaptive pacing therapy or pharmacological therapy.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessments and data extraction. We combined continuous measures of outcomes using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We combined serious adverse reactions and drop-outs using risk ratios (RRs). We calculated an overall effect size with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome.MAIN RESULTS: We have included eight randomised controlled studies and have reported data from 1518 participants in this review. Three studies diagnosed individuals with CFS using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); five used the Oxford criteria. Exercise therapy lasted from 12 to 26 weeks. Seven studies used variations of aerobic exercise therapy such as walking, swimming, cycling or dancing provided at mixed levels in terms of intensity of the aerobic exercise from very low to quite rigorous, whilst one study used anaerobic exercise. Control groups consisted of passive control (eight studies; e.g. treatment as usual, relaxation, flexibility) or CBT (two studies), cognitive therapy (one study), supportive listening (one study), pacing (one study), pharmacological treatment (one study) and combination treatment (one study). Risk of bias varied across studies, but within each study, little variation was found in the risk of bias across our primary and secondary outcome measures.Investigators compared exercise therapy with 'passive' control in eight trials, which enrolled 971 participants. Seven studies consistently showed a reduction in fatigue following exercise therapy at end of treatment, even though the fatigue scales used different scoring systems: an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 11 points (MD -6.06, 95% CI -6.95 to -5.17; one study, 148 participants; low-quality evidence); the same 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD -2.82, 95% CI -4.07 to -1.57; three studies, 540 participants; moderate-quality evidence); and a 14-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 42 points (MD -6.80, 95% CI -10.31 to -3.28; three studies, 152 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.14 to 6.97; one study, 319 participants; moderate-quality evidence), but sparse data made it impossible for review authors to draw conclusions. Study authors reported a positive effect of exercise therapy at end of treatment with respect to sleep (MD -1.49, 95% CI -2.95 to -0.02; two studies, 323 participants), physical functioning (MD 13.10, 95% CI 1.98 to 24.22; five studies, 725 participants) and self-perceived changes in overall health (RR 1.83, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.40; four studies, 489 participants). It was not possible for review authors to draw conclusions regarding the remaining outcomes.Investigators compared exercise therapy with CBT in two trials (351 participants). One trial (298 participants) reported little or no difference in fatigue at end of treatment between the two groups using an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.20, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.89). Both studies measured differences in fatigue at follow-up, but neither found differences between the two groups using an 11-item fatigue scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.30, 95% CI -1.45 to 2.05) and a nine-item Fatigue Severity Scale with a scoring system of 1 to 7 points (MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.34 to 1.14). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.96). We observed little or no difference in physical functioning, depression, anxiety and sleep, and we were not able to draw any conclusions with regard to pain, self-perceived changes in overall health, use of health service resources and drop-out rate.With regard to other comparisons, one study (320 participants) suggested a general benefit of exercise over adaptive pacing, and another study (183 participants) a benefit of exercise over supportive listening. The available evidence was too sparse to draw conclusions about the effect of pharmaceutical interventions.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CFS may generally benefit and feel less fatigued following exercise therapy, and no evidence suggests that exercise therapy may worsen outcomes. A positive effect with respect to sleep, physical function and self-perceived general health has been observed, but no conclusions for the outcomes of pain, quality of life, anxiety, depression, drop-out rate and health service resources were possible. The effectiveness of exercise therapy seems greater than that of pacing but similar to that of CBT. Randomised trials with low risk of bias are needed to investigate the type, duration and intensity of the most beneficial exercise intervention.


PubMed | Primary Health Care Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine | Year: 2016

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is estimated to affect between 2 in 1000 and 2 in 100 adults depending on how diagnostic criteria are applied. Patients with CFS have long-lasting fatigue in addition to symptoms including muscle pain, concentration and sleep problems. These symptoms cause significant disability and distress to the people affected. This review is an update of a previous Cochrane review (2004) that showed that exercise therapy was a promising treatment for adults with CFS.The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy for patients with CFS.Systematic review.Health care settings.Participants over 18 years with a primary diagnosis of CFS, able to attend an outpatient clinic for exercise therapy, were included.We searched electronic databases, including SPORTDiscus, up to May 2014 using a comprehensive list of free-text terms for CFS and exercise. Randomized clinical trials from all health care settings with participants over 18 years with a primary diagnosis of CFS, able to attend an outpatient clinic for exercise therapy, were included. We have included 8 randomized clinical studies that reported data from 1518 participants. Seven studies used aerobic exercise such as walking, swimming, or cycling and one study used non-aerobic exercise. The exercise therapies lasted between 12 and 26 weeks. Meta-analysis was done when appropriate.Exercise therapy was more effective at reducing fatigue than passive treatments or no treatment at end of treatment. Exercise therapy also had a positive effect on peoples daily physical functioning, sleep quality and self-rated overall health. Nearly twice as many patients reported improvement self-rated overall health after exercise therapy (40 per 100) compared to standard treatment (22 per 100). The evidence was too sparse and/or of too low quality to conclude if exercise therapy has an effect on pain, quality of life, anxiety or depression. Exercise therapy was not found to worsen symptoms for people with CFS, while serious side effects were rare in all exercise and comparison groups.Patiens with CFS may generally benefit from and feel less fatigued following exercise therapy, and no evidence suggests that exercise therapy may worsen outcomes.Exercise therapy should be considered.


PubMed | Primary Health Care Unit
Type: | Journal: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2015

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent, medically unexplained fatigue, as well as symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, headaches and impaired concentration and short-term memory. CFS presents as a common, debilitating and serious health problem. Treatment may include physical interventions, such as exercise therapy, which was last reviewed in 2004.The objective of this review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy (ET) for patients with CFS as compared with any other intervention or control. Exercise therapy versus passive control (e.g. treatment as usual, waiting-list control, relaxation, flexibility). Exercise therapy versus other active treatment (e.g. cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive treatment, supportive therapy, pacing, pharmacological therapy such as antidepressants). Exercise therapy in combination with other specified treatment strategies versus other specified treatment strategies (e.g. exercise combined with pharmacological treatment vs pharmacological treatment alone).We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and SPORTDiscus up to May 2014 using a comprehensive list of free-text terms for CFS and exercise. We located unpublished or ongoing trials through the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to May 2014). We screened reference lists of retrieved articles and contacted experts in the field for additional studiesRandomised controlled trials involving adults with a primary diagnosis of CFS who were able to participate in exercise therapy. Studies had to compare exercise therapy with passive control, psychological therapies, adaptive pacing therapy or pharmacological therapy.Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessments and data extraction. We combined continuous measures of outcomes using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We combined serious adverse reactions and drop-outs using risk ratios (RRs). We calculated an overall effect size with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome.We have included eight randomised controlled studies and have reported data from 1518 participants in this review. Three studies diagnosed individuals with CFS using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); five used the Oxford criteria. Exercise therapy lasted from 12 to 26 weeks. Seven studies used variations of aerobic exercise therapy such as walking, swimming, cycling or dancing provided at mixed levels in terms of intensity of the aerobic exercise from very low to quite rigorous, whilst one study used anaerobic exercise. Control groups consisted of passive control (eight studies; e.g. treatment as usual, relaxation, flexibility) or CBT (two studies), cognitive therapy (one study), supportive listening (one study), pacing (one study), pharmacological treatment (one study) and combination treatment (one study). Risk of bias varied across studies, but within each study, little variation was found in the risk of bias across our primary and secondary outcome measures.Investigators compared exercise therapy with passive control in eight trials, which enrolled 971 participants. Seven studies consistently showed a reduction in fatigue following exercise therapy at end of treatment, even though the fatigue scales used different scoring systems: an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 11 points (MD -6.06, 95% CI -6.95 to -5.17; one study, 148 participants; low-quality evidence); the same 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD -2.82, 95% CI -4.07 to -1.57; three studies, 540 participants; moderate-quality evidence); and a 14-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 42 points (MD -6.80, 95% CI -10.31 to -3.28; three studies, 152 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.14 to 6.97; one study, 319 participants; moderate-quality evidence), but sparse data made it impossible for review authors to draw conclusions. Study authors reported a positive effect of exercise therapy at end of treatment with respect to sleep (MD -1.49, 95% CI -2.95 to -0.02; two studies, 323 participants), physical functioning (MD 13.10, 95% CI 1.98 to 24.22; five studies, 725 participants) and self-perceived changes in overall health (RR 1.83, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.40; four studies, 489 participants). It was not possible for review authors to draw conclusions regarding the remaining outcomes.Investigators compared exercise therapy with CBT in two trials (351 participants). One trial (298 participants) reported little or no difference in fatigue at end of treatment between the two groups using an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.20, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.89). Both studies measured differences in fatigue at follow-up, but neither found differences between the two groups using an 11-item fatigue scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.30, 95% CI -1.45 to 2.05) and a nine-item Fatigue Severity Scale with a scoring system of 1 to 7 points (MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.34 to 1.14). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.96). We observed little or no difference in physical functioning, depression, anxiety and sleep, and we were not able to draw any conclusions with regard to pain, self-perceived changes in overall health, use of health service resources and drop-out rate.With regard to other comparisons, one study (320 participants) suggested a general benefit of exercise over adaptive pacing, and another study (183 participants) a benefit of exercise over supportive listening. The available evidence was too sparse to draw conclusions about the effect of pharmaceutical interventions.Patients with CFS may generally benefit and feel less fatigued following exercise therapy, and no evidence suggests that exercise therapy may worsen outcomes. A positive effect with respect to sleep, physical function and self-perceived general health has been observed, but no conclusions for the outcomes of pain, quality of life, anxiety, depression, drop-out rate and health service resources were possible. The effectiveness of exercise therapy seems greater than that of pacing but similar to that of CBT. Randomised trials with low risk of bias are needed to investigate the type, duration and intensity of the most beneficial exercise intervention.


PubMed | Primary Health Care Unit
Type: | Journal: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2016

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent, medically unexplained fatigue, as well as symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, headaches and impaired concentration and short-term memory. CFS presents as a common, debilitating and serious health problem. Treatment may include physical interventions, such as exercise therapy, which was last reviewed in 2004.The objective of this review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy (ET) for patients with CFS as compared with any other intervention or control. Exercise therapy versus passive control (e.g. treatment as usual, waiting-list control, relaxation, flexibility). Exercise therapy versus other active treatment (e.g. cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive treatment, supportive therapy, pacing, pharmacological therapy such as antidepressants). Exercise therapy in combination with other specified treatment strategies versus other specified treatment strategies (e.g. exercise combined with pharmacological treatment vs pharmacological treatment alone).We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and SPORTDiscus up to May 2014 using a comprehensive list of free-text terms for CFS and exercise. We located unpublished or ongoing trials through the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to May 2014). We screened reference lists of retrieved articles and contacted experts in the field for additional studiesRandomised controlled trials involving adults with a primary diagnosis of CFS who were able to participate in exercise therapy. Studies had to compare exercise therapy with passive control, psychological therapies, adaptive pacing therapy or pharmacological therapy.Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessments and data extraction. We combined continuous measures of outcomes using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We combined serious adverse reactions and drop-outs using risk ratios (RRs). We calculated an overall effect size with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome.We have included eight randomised controlled studies and have reported data from 1518 participants in this review. Three studies diagnosed individuals with CFS using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); five used the Oxford criteria. Exercise therapy lasted from 12 to 26 weeks. Seven studies used variations of aerobic exercise therapy such as walking, swimming, cycling or dancing provided at mixed levels in terms of intensity of the aerobic exercise from very low to quite rigorous, whilst one study used anaerobic exercise. Control groups consisted of passive control (eight studies; e.g. treatment as usual, relaxation, flexibility) or CBT (two studies), cognitive therapy (one study), supportive listening (one study), pacing (one study), pharmacological treatment (one study) and combination treatment (one study). Risk of bias varied across studies, but within each study, little variation was found in the risk of bias across our primary and secondary outcome measures.Investigators compared exercise therapy with passive control in eight trials, which enrolled 971 participants. Seven studies consistently showed a reduction in fatigue following exercise therapy at end of treatment, even though the fatigue scales used different scoring systems: an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 11 points (MD -6.06, 95% CI -6.95 to -5.17; one study, 148 participants; low-quality evidence); the same 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD -2.82, 95% CI -4.07 to -1.57; three studies, 540 participants; moderate-quality evidence); and a 14-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 42 points (MD -6.80, 95% CI -10.31 to -3.28; three studies, 152 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.14 to 6.97; one study, 319 participants; moderate-quality evidence), but sparse data made it impossible for review authors to draw conclusions. Study authors reported a positive effect of exercise therapy at end of treatment with respect to sleep (MD -1.49, 95% CI -2.95 to -0.02; two studies, 323 participants), physical functioning (MD 13.10, 95% CI 1.98 to 24.22; five studies, 725 participants) and self-perceived changes in overall health (RR 1.83, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.40; four studies, 489 participants). It was not possible for review authors to draw conclusions regarding the remaining outcomes.Investigators compared exercise therapy with CBT in two trials (351 participants). One trial (298 participants) reported little or no difference in fatigue at end of treatment between the two groups using an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.20, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.89). Both studies measured differences in fatigue at follow-up, but neither found differences between the two groups using an 11-item fatigue scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.30, 95% CI -1.45 to 2.05) and a nine-item Fatigue Severity Scale with a scoring system of 1 to 7 points (MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.34 to 1.14). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.96). We observed little or no difference in physical functioning, depression, anxiety and sleep, and we were not able to draw any conclusions with regard to pain, self-perceived changes in overall health, use of health service resources and drop-out rate.With regard to other comparisons, one study (320 participants) suggested a general benefit of exercise over adaptive pacing, and another study (183 participants) a benefit of exercise over supportive listening. The available evidence was too sparse to draw conclusions about the effect of pharmaceutical interventions.Patients with CFS may generally benefit and feel less fatigued following exercise therapy, and no evidence suggests that exercise therapy may worsen outcomes. A positive effect with respect to sleep, physical function and self-perceived general health has been observed, but no conclusions for the outcomes of pain, quality of life, anxiety, depression, drop-out rate and health service resources were possible. The effectiveness of exercise therapy seems greater than that of pacing but similar to that of CBT. Randomised trials with low risk of bias are needed to investigate the type, duration and intensity of the most beneficial exercise intervention.


PubMed | Primary Health Care Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing) | Year: 2016

Empowerment of diabetic patients can be promoted by the use of blood glucose self-monitoring. Community nurses play an important role in teaching effective and accurate techniques.

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