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Hoyer B.B.,Aarhus University Hospital | Ramlau-Hansen C.H.,University of Aarhus | Vrijheid M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Vrijheid M.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2015

Background: In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse. Objective: We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the prevalence of offspring overweight (> 1 SD) and waist-toheight ratio (WHtR) > 0.5 at 5–9 years of age. Methods: Sera from 1,022 pregnant women enrolled in the INUENDO cohort (2002–2004) from Greenland and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS using liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry. Relative risks (RR) of being overweight and having WHtR > 0.5 in relation to continuous and categorized (tertiles) PFOA and PFOS were calculated at follow-up (2010–2012) using generalized linear models. Results: Pooled PFOA median (range) was 1.3 (0.2–5.1) and PFOS median (range) was 10.8 (0.8– 73.0) ng/mL. For each natural logarithm-unit (ln-unit) increase of pregnancy PFOA, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.53] in Greenlandic children. In Ukrainian children, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.44) for each ln-unit increase of pregnancy PFOA. Prenatal exposure to PFOS was not associated with overweight in country-specific or pooled analysis. The adjusted RR of having WHtR > 0.5 for each ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOA was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.74) in the pooled analysis. For 1–ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis. Conclusions: The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not associated with overweight. © 2015, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved. Source

Andersen S.,Queen Ingrids Hospital | Andersen S.,University of Aalborg | Kjaergaard M.,Queen Ingrids Hospital | Jorgensen M.E.,Queen Ingrids Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2011

Background: Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may be detected by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in electrocardiogram (ECG). Pre-western Inuit had frequent signs of LVH in ECG predominantly in the 3rd decade while a low occurrence of ischemic heart disease. Methods: We evaluated the association between blood pressures and ECG signs of LVH, cardiac auscultation, and symptoms related to heart disease in the recently recovered data from the survey of 1851 Inuit conducted in 1962-1964 in East Greenland. Results: The participation rate was 97%. Among the 812 Inuit aged 18. years or above blood pressure was unaltered until the age of 39. years (systolic, p= 76; diastolic, p= 0.36) and increased subsequently (both, p< 0.001). Systolic blood pressure >140. mm. Hg was more frequent when aged >40. years (p< 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure >90. mm. Hg was more common in men (p< 0.001) and in men and women aged >40. years (p< 0.001). ECG signs of LVH were more frequent in men (p< 0.01) but the occurrence decreased from the age of 40. years (p< 0.01), and were not influenced by systolic (p= 0.97), diastolic (p= 0.87) or pulse pressure (p= 0.69). Conclusions: Blood pressure rose only after the age of 40. years in pre-western Inuit. Left ventricular hypertrophy peaked among 30-year olds and was independent of elevated blood pressure. It may be speculated that the common left ventricular hypertrophy was due to marked physical activity that contributed to the low occurrence of ischemic heart disease among pre-western Inuit. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Hrafnkelsson B.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | Hrafnkelsson B.,University of Iceland | Helgason A.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | Jonsson G.F.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | And 15 more authors.
Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

We propose two methods to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) between populations, where LD is measured by the standardised parameter D′. The first method is based on bootstrapping individuals within populations in order to test LD differences for each pair of loci. Using this approach we propose a solution to the problem of testing multiple locus-pairs by means of a single test for the number of pairs that exhibit significant LD differences among populations. The second method provides the Bayesian posterior probability that one population has greater LD than the other for each locus pair. Both methods can handle genotypes with unknown phase, and are demonstrated using two data sets. For the purpose of demonstration, we apply the methods to two different sets of data from humans. First, we explore the issue of LD differences between reproductively isolated populations using a new data set of twelve Xq25 microsatellites, typed in four European populations. Second, we examine evidence for LD differences between Alzheimer cases and controls from the Icelandic population using 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a 97 kb region flanking the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on chromosome 19. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London. Source

Vllasolli T.O.,University of Prishtina | Kalaveshi A.,National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo | Gashi S.,National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo | Murtezani A.,University of Prishtina | And 2 more authors.
Turkiye Klinikleri Pediatri | Year: 2013

Objective: Neonatal clavicle fracture is the most common form of birth trauma, considering the benign nature of this birth trauma. Fractured clavicle in the newborn has been the subject of many publications aiming to define what causes it and looking at the prognosis, with varied and sometimes conflicting findings. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and the main risk factors involved in neonatal clavicle fracture, in Kosovar neonates, in a population with high parity. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 42 272 live births from January 2005 to December 2008 was performed to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with fractures of the clavicle in the newborn. Results: One hundred fractures (100 patients) were identified, for an incidence of 2.4 clavicle fractures per 1000 live births. The incidence of fracture was in relation with the weight of the newborns, multiparity and induced delivery. There were significant differences in occurring of the clavicle fracture between newborns with >3500 gram/≤3500 gram (P<0.001). The plexus brachial palsy as an associated injury was present in 46% newborns. Conclusion: The incidence of the clavicle fracture and of the risk factors is similar to incidence in developed countries. Babies with higher birth weight, born from multiparies and induced vaginal deliveries are at greater risk for this birth trauma. Copyright © 2013 by Türkiye Klinikleri. Source

Andersen S.,University of Aalborg | Fleischer Rex K.,University of Aalborg | Noahsen P.,University of Aalborg | Florian Sorensen H.C.,Ammassalik Hospital | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI. © 2013 Stig Andersen et al. Source

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