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Zobell J.T.,Intermountain Primary Childrens Hospital | Zobell J.T.,Intermountain Cystic Fibrosis Pediatric Center | Epps K.L.,St Vincents Medical Center Riverside | Young D.C.,University of Utah | And 7 more authors.
Pediatric Pulmonology | Year: 2015

Summary Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize the utilization of antibiotics for chronic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with acute pulmonary exacerbations (PEx). Methods An anonymous national cross-sectional survey of CF Foundation accredited care programs was performed using an electronic survey tool. Results Fifty-eight percent (152/261) CF Foundation accredited programs completed the survey. Ninety-eight percent (149/152) of respondents reported using antibiotics (oral or intravenous) against MRSA. Variability exists in the use of antibiotics amongst the programs and in the dosages utilized. For oral outpatient treatment, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was the most commonly utilized antibiotic by both pediatric (109/287, 38%) and adult (99/295, 34%) respondents, of which, ten percent of reported to use it in combination with rifampin. For inpatient treatment, linezolid (both intravenous (IV) and oral) was most commonly utilized in both pediatric (IV 35/224, 16%; oral 41/224, 18%), and adult (IV 44/235, 19%; oral 38/235, 16%) respondents for inpatient treatment. IV vancomycin was the second most commonly utilized antibiotic by pediatric (70/224, 31%) and adult (71/235, 30%) respondents. Most respondents reported dose titration to achieve a vancomycin trough level of 15-20 mg/L (150/179, 84%). Topical or inhaled antibiotic utilization was reported to be an uncommon practice with approximately 70% of pediatric and adult respondents reporting to use them either rarely or never. The concomitant use of anti-MRSA and anti-pseudomonal antibiotics was common with 96% of pediatric and 99% of adult respondents answering in the affirmative. Conclusion We conclude that anti-MRSA antibiotics are utilized via various dosage regimens by a majority of CF Foundation accredited care programs for the treatment of chronic MRSA in PEx, and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015; 50:552-559. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Saldana S.N.,Intermountain Primary Childrens Hospital | Saldana S.N.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Keeshin B.R.,University of Utah | Wehry A.M.,University of Cincinnati | And 6 more authors.
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Study Objective Antipsychotic polypharmacy-the use of more than one antipsychotic concomitantly - has increased in children and adolescents and may be associated with increased adverse effects, nonadherence, and greater costs. Thus, we sought to examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of psychiatrically hospitalized children and adolescents who were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy and to identify predictors of this prescribing pattern. Design Retrospective medical record review. Setting The inpatient psychiatric unit of a large, acute care, urban children's hospital. Patients One thousand four hundred twenty-seven children and adolescents who were consecutively admitted and discharged between September 2010 and May 2011. Measurements and Main Results At discharge, 840 (58.9%) of the 1427 patients were prescribed one or more antipsychotics, and 99.3% of these received second-generation antipsychotics. Of these 840 patients, 724 (86.2%) were treated with antipsychotic monotherapy, and 116 (13.8%) were treated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Positive correlations with antipsychotic polypharmacy were observed for placement or custody outside the biological family; a greater number of previous psychiatric admissions; longer hospitalizations; admission for violence/aggression or psychosis; and intellectual disability, psychotic, disruptive behavior, or developmental disorder diagnoses. Negative correlations with antipsychotic polypharmacy included admission for suicidal ideation/attempt or depression, and mood disorder diagnoses. Significant predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy included admission for violence or aggression (odds ratio [OR] 2.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-5.61]), greater number of previous admissions (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.10-1.33]), and longer hospitalizations (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.04-1.12]). In addition, diagnoses of intellectual disability (OR 2.62 [95% CI 1.52-4.52]), psychotic disorders (OR 5.60 [95% CI 2.29-13.68]), and developmental disorders (OR 3.18 [95% CI 1.78-5.65]) were predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion Certain youth may have a higher likelihood of being prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy, which should prompt careful consideration of medication treatment options during inpatient hospitalization. Future examinations of the rationale for combining antipsychotics, along with the long-term safety, tolerability, and cost effectiveness of these therapies, in youth are urgently needed. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc. Source


Yu T.,University of Utah | Stockmann C.,University of Utah | Healy D.P.,University of Cincinnati | Olson J.,Intermountain Primary Childrens Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Burn Care and Research | Year: 2015

This study aimed to develop optimal amikacin dosing regimens for the empirical treatment of Gram-negative bacterial sepsis in pediatric patients with burn injuries. A pharmacodynamic (PD) target in which the peak concentration (Cmax) is ≥8 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (Cmax/MIC ≥ 8) is reflective of optimal bactericidal activity and has been used to predict clinical outcomes. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed in NONMEM 7.2 for pediatric patients with and without burn injuries. Amikacin pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the two groups and multiple dosing regimens were simulated using MATLAB to achieve the PD target in ≥90% of patients with burn injuries. The pharmacokinetic analysis included 282 amikacin concentrations from 70 pediatric patients with burn injuries and 99 concentrations from 32 pediatric patients without burns. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination described amikacin pharmacokinetics well for both groups. Clearance (CL) was significantly higher in patients with burn injuries than in patients without (7.22 vs 5.36 L/h, P <.001). The volume of distribution (V) was also significantly increased in patients with burn injuries (22.7 vs 18.7 L, P <.01). Weight significantly influenced amikacin CL (P <.001) and V (P <.001) for both groups. Model-based simulations showed that a higher amikacin dose (≥25 mg/kg) achieved a Cmax/MIC ≥8 in ≥90% of patients with assumed infections of organisms with an MIC = 8 mg/L. Amikacin pharmacokinetics are altered in patients with burn injuries, including a significant increase in CL and V. In simulations, increased doses (≥25 mg/kg) led to improved PD target attainment rates. Further clinical evaluation of this proposed dosing regimen is warranted to assess clinical and microbiological outcomes in pediatric patients with burn wound sepsis. © 2014 by the American Burn Association. Source


Hanson K.E.,University of Utah | Slechta E.S.,Arup | Killpack J.A.,University of Utah | Heyrend C.,Intermountain Primary Childrens Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2016

We evaluated a multiplexed PCR panel for the detection of 16 bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid. Panel results were compared to routine testing, and discrepancies were resolved by additional nucleic acid amplification tests or sequencing. Overall, the positive and negative agreements across methods were 92.9% and 91.9%, respectively. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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