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Mutasingwa D.R.,University of Toronto | Ge H.,University of Toronto | Upshur R.E.G.,Primary Care Research Unit | Upshur R.E.G.,University of Toronto
Canadian Family Physician | Year: 2011

Objective: To examine the applicability of 10 common clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Design: Content analysis of published Canadian CPGs for the following chronic diseases: diabetes, dyslipidemia, dementia, congestive heart failure, depression, osteoporosis, hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and osteoarthritis. Main outcome measures: Presence or absence of 4 key indicators of applicability of CPGs to elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. These indicators include any mention of older adults or people with comorbidities, time needed to treat to benefit in the context of life expectancy, and barriers to implementation of the CPG. Results: Out of the 10 CPGs reviewed, 7 mentioned treatment of the elderly, 8 mentioned people with comorbidities, 4 indicated the time needed to treat to benefit in the context of life expectancy, 5 discussed barriers to implementation, and 7 discussed the quality of evidence. Conclusion: This study shows that although most CPGs discuss the elderly population, only a handful of them adequately address issues related to elderly patients with comorbidities. In order to make CPGs more patient centred rather than disease driven, guideline developers should include information on elderly patients with comorbidities.

Aiarzaguena J.M.,Primary Care Research Unit | Gaminde I.,Innovation and Continuous Education Unit | Clemente I.,City College of New York | Garrido E.,Onati Health Care Center
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine (1) how physicians present an explanation of symptoms in terms of a hormonal imbalance as a means to initiate a psychosocial discussion with somatizing patients; and (2) how they respond to this explanation of symptoms. Methods: Qualitative study of 11 sequences in which physicians explain patients' symptoms in terms of a hormonal imbalance are micro-analyzed using Conversation Analysis. Results: Symptom explanations (SEs) were vague, tentative, and uncertain. Two patterns of SEs (general vs. specific) and five different patterns of patient response were found. Patient responses are classified according to whether they occur during or after the SE, and according to the degree of work patients carry out to verbalize a response. Conclusion: Symptom explanations elicited varying degrees of patient agreement, and allowed physicians to obtain patients' permission to conduct a psychosocial exploration. Practice implications: Physicians may start SEs by associating symptoms to a hormonal imbalance, and by relating them to universally recognizable emotions and familiar situations. Excessive emphasis on long and complex SEs and on seeking extended verbalizations of patient agreement may be counterproductive and antagonize the patient. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Schmitt J.,TU Dresden | Von Kobyletzki L.,Lund University | Von Kobyletzki L.,Primary Care Research Unit | Svensson A.,Skane University Hospital | Apfelbacher C.,University of Heidelberg
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Summary Background: Long-term low-level topical anti-inflammatory therapy has been suggested as a new paradigm in the treatment of atopic eczema (AE). Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors for flare prevention in AE. Methods Systematic review of randomized controlled trials reporting efficacy of topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors for flare prevention in AE. Identification of relevant articles by systematic electronic searches (Cochrane Library, Medline) supplemented by hand search. Primary efficacy endpoint: proportion of participants experiencing at least one flare during proactive anti-inflammatory treatment. Relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled by pharmaceutical agent using random-effects meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis included meta-regression to explore the influence of study-specific covariates. Results Nine articles reporting on eight vehicle-controlled trials were included. Three, four and one trial(s) evaluated proactive therapy with topical tacrolimus, fluticasone propionate and methylprednisolone aceponate, respectively. Each agent under study was more efficacious to prevent flares than vehicle. Meta-analysis suggested that topical fluticasone propionate (RR 0·46, 95% CI 0·38-0·55) may be more efficacious to prevent disease flares than topical tacrolimus (RR 0·78, 95% CI 0·60-1·00). Meta-regression indicated robustness of these findings. Proactive anti-inflammatory therapy was generally well tolerated. The trials identified, however, do not allow firm conclusions about long-term safety. Conclusions Vehicle-controlled trials indicate efficacy of proactive treatment with tacrolimus, fluticasone propionate and methylprednisolone aceponate to prevent AE flares. Indirect evidence from vehicle-controlled trials suggests that twice weekly application of the potent topical corticosteroid fluticasone propionate may be more efficacious to prevent AE flares than tacrolimus ointment. Head to head trials should be conducted to confirm these results. Future studies are also needed to evaluate the long-term safety of proactive treatment of AE. © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

Choi H.,Harvard University | Schmidbauer N.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Sundell J.,Tsinghua University | Hasselgren M.,Primary Care Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown. Objective: We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden. Methods: In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls), air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs. Results: A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs) in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 - 15.65 μg/m3) was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.1), 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 - 2.3), 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 - 4.7), and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.3), accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.8) compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs. Conclusion: We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively. © 2010 Choi et al.

Emilsson L.,Primary Care Research Unit | Emilsson L.,University of Oslo | Magnus M.C.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Stordal K.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims: There have been inconsistent reports of prenatal and perinatal factors that affect risk for development of celiac disease. We assessed the association of fetal growth, birth weight, and mode of delivery with development of celiac disease within the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study. Methods: The MoBa cohort contains pregnancy information on 95,200 women and data on their 114,500 children, which were collected in Norway from 1999 through 2008; it is linked to the Medical Birth Registry. Women and children with celiac disease were identified from the National Patient Registry and from women's responses to MoBa questionnaires. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for celiac disease by using a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for maternal celiac disease, sex of children, and children's age (model 1); in a second model, we adjusted for age of gluten introduction and duration of breastfeeding (model 2). Results: We identified 650 children with celiac disease and 107,828 controls in the MoBa database. We found no association between birth weight or height with celiac disease (born small for gestational age was not associated). Celiac disease was not associated with mode of delivery (cesarean section, model 1: OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.09, and model 2: OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.63-1.09). Maternal celiac disease, adjusted for age and sex of the children (OR, 12.45; 95% CI, 8.29-18.71) and type 1 diabetes (model 1: OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.19-5.53, and model 2: OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.14-5.98) were associated with development of celiac disease in children, whereas maternal type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes were not. Conclusions: On the basis of analysis of the Norwegian MoBa cohort, development of celiac disease in children is significantly associated with sex of the child, maternal celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes but not with intrauterine growth. © 2015 AGA Institute.

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