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Rome, Italy

Thunander M.,Lund University | Thorgeirsson H.,Lund University | Torn C.,Lund University | Petersson C.,Primary Care | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology

Objectives: The optimal treatment of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is not established. We explored whether early insulin treatment, which has shown beneficial effects in rodents and in human pilot studies, would result in better preservation of β-cell function or metabolic control, compared with conventional treatment. Subjects and methods: Glucagon-stimulated C-peptide and HbAlc were evaluated at baseline and after 12, 24 and 36 months in 37 patients recently diagnosed with diabetes, aged ≥30 years, non-insulin-requiring and GADAb and/or ICA positive. Twenty patients received early insulin and 17 received conventional treatment (diet±oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA), metformin, some and/or sulfonylurea) and insulin when necessary. Results: Level of metabolic control, HbAlc, was preserved in the early insulin treated, while it significantly deteriorated in the conventionally treated. There was no significant difference between the groups in C-peptide after 12, 24 or 36 months, or in the decline of C-peptide. Only baseline C-peptide predicted a C-peptide of ≥0.5 nmol/l at 36 months. Gender, body mass index, antibody titres or HbAlc did not influence the levels of C-peptide or HbAlc at baseline or end-of-study, or the decline in C-peptide. Among the diet±OHA-treated, 5/17 (30%) developed insulin dependency during the follow-up. No major hypoglycaemic events occurred. Conclusions: Early insulin treatment in LADA leads to better preservation of metabolic control and was safe. Superior preservation of C-peptide could not be significantly demonstrated. Only baseline level of C-peptide significantly influenced C-peptide level after 3 years. Further studies exploring the best treatment in LADA are warranted. © 2011 European Society of Endocrinology. Source

Pelayo M.,Primary Care | Cebrian D.,Getafe University Hospital | Areosa A.,Guadarramas Hospital | Agra Y.,Quality Agency of the NHS | And 2 more authors.
BMC Family Practice

Background: The Spanish Palliative Care Strategy recommends an intermediate level of training for primary care physicians in order to provide them with knowledge and skills. Most of the training involves face-to-face courses but increasing pressures on physicians have resulted in fewer opportunities for provision of and attendance to this type of training. The effectiveness of on-line continuing medical education in terms of its impact on clinical practice has been scarcely studied. Its effect in relation to palliative care for primary care physicians is currently unknown, in terms of improvement in patient's quality of life and main caregiver's satisfaction. There is uncertainty too in terms of any potential benefits of asynchronous communication and interaction among on-line education participants, as well as of the effect of the learning process. The authors have developed an on-line educational model for palliative care which has been applied to primary care physicians in order to measure its effectiveness regarding knowledge, attitude towards palliative care, and physician's satisfaction in comparison with a control group. The effectiveness evaluation at 18 months and the impact on the quality of life of patients managed by the physicians, and the main caregiver's satisfaction will be addressed in a different paper. Methods: Randomized controlled educational trial to compared, on a first stage, the knowledge and attitude of primary care physicians regarding palliative care for advanced cancer patients, as well as satisfaction in those who followed an on-line palliative care training program with tutorship, using a Moodle Platform vs. traditional education. Results: 169 physicians were included, 85 in the intervention group and 84 in the control group, of which five were excluded. Finally 82 participants per group were analyzed. There were significant differences in favor of the intervention group, in terms of knowledge (mean 4.6; CI 95%: 2.8 to 6.5 (p = 0.0001), scale range 0-33), confidence in symptom management (p = 0.02) and confidence in terms of communication (p = 0.038). Useful aspects were pointed out, as well as others to be improved in future applications. The satisfaction of the intervention group was high. Conclusions: The results of this study show that there was a significant increase of knowledge of 14%-20% and a significant increase in the perception of confidence in symptom management and communication in the intervention group in comparison with the control group that received traditional methods of education in palliative care or no educational activity at all. The overall satisfaction with the intervention was good-very good for most participants. This on-line educational model seems a useful tool for palliative care training in primary care physicians who have a high opinion about the integration of palliative care within primary care. The results of this study support the suggestion that learning effectiveness should be currently investigated comparing different Internet interventions, instead of Internet vs. no intervention. © 2011 Pelayo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Thorn J.,Gothenburg University | Tilling B.,Primary Care | Lisspers K.,Uppsala University | Jorgensen L.,Astrazeneca | And 2 more authors.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal

Background: The importance of identifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at an early stage is recognised. Improved and easily accessible identification of individuals at risk of COPD in primary care is needed to select patients for spirometry more accurately. Aims: To explore whether use of a mini-spirometer can predict a diagnosis of COPD in patients at risk of COPD in primary care, and to assess its cost-effectiveness in detecting patients with COPD. Methods: Primary care patients aged 45-85 years with a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years were selected. Data were collected on the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale and smoking habits. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 s; FEV1 and FEV6, respectively) was measured by mini-spirometer (copd-6), followed by diagnostic standard spirometry (COPD diagnosis post-bronchodilation ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.7). Time consumed was recorded. Univariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used. Results: A total of 305 patients (57% females) of mean (SD) age 61.2 (8.4) years, mean (SD) total CCQ 1.0 (0.8) and mean (SD) MRC 0.8 (0.8) were recruited from 21 centres. COPD was diagnosed in 77 patients (25.2%) by standard diagnostic spirometry. Using the copd-6 device, mean (SD) FEV1/FEV6 was 68 (8)% in patients with COPD and 78 (10)% in patients without COPD. Sensitivity and specificity at a FEV1/FEV6 cut-off of 73% were 79.2% and 80.3%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.84. Screening with the copd-6 device significantly predicted COPD. Gender, CCQ, and MRC were not found to predict COPD. Conclusions: Using the copd-6 as a pre-screening device, the rate of COPD diagnoses by standard diagnostic spirometry increased from 25.2% to 79.2%. Although the sensitivity and specificity of the copd-6 could be improved, it might be an important device for prescreening of COPD in primary care and may reduce the number of unnecessary spirometric tests performed. © 2012 Primary Care Respiratory Society UK. All rights reserved. Source

Hughes T.,Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust | Locker A.,Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust | McLintock K.,Primary Care | House A.,University of Leeds
British Journal of General Practice

Background Bipolar disorder is not uncommon, is associated with high disability and risk of suicide, often presents with depression, and can go unrecognised. Aim To determine the prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder among those prescribed antidepressants for depressive or anxiety disorder in UK primary care; whether those with unrecognised bipolar disorder have more severe depression than those who do not; and the accuracy of a screening questionnaire for bipolar disorder, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), in this setting. Design and setting Observational primary care study of patients on the lists of 21 general practices in West Yorkshire aged 16'40 years and prescribed antidepressant medication. Method Participants were recruited using primary care databases, interviewed using a diagnostic interview, and completed the screening questionnaire and rating scales of symptoms and quality of life. Results The prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder was 7.3%. Adjusting for differences between the sample and a national database gives a prevalence of 10.0%. Those with unrecognised bipolar disorder were younger and had greater lifetime depression. The predictive value of the MDQ was poor. Conclusion Among people aged 16'40 years prescribed antidepressants in primary care for depression or anxiety, there is a substantial proportion with unrecognised bipolar disorder. When seeing patients with depression or anxiety disorder, particularly when they are young or not doing well, clinicians should review the life history for evidence of unrecognised bipolar disorder. Some clinicians might find the MDQ to be a useful supplement to non-standardised questioning. Source

Gottlieb L.,University of California at San Francisco | Hessler D.,University of California at San Francisco | Long D.,Primary Care | Amaya A.,University of California at San Francisco | Adler N.,University of California at San Francisco

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in clinical screening for pediatric social determinants of health, but little evidence on formats that maximize disclosure rates on a wide range of potentially sensitive topics. We designed a study to examine disclosure rates and hypothesized that there would be no difference in disclosure rates on face-toface versus electronic screening formats for items other than highly sensitive items. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of electronic versus face-to-face social screening formats in a pediatric emergency department. Consenting English-speaking and Spanish-speaking adult caregivers familiar with the presenting child's household were randomized to social screening via tablet computer (with option for audio assist) versus a face-to-face interview conducted by a fully bilingual/bicultural researcher. RESULTS: Almost all caregivers (96.8%) reported at least 1 social need, but rates of reporting on the more sensitive issues (household violence and substance abuse) were significantly higher in electronic format, and disclosure was marginally higher in electronic format for financial insecurity and neighborhood and school safety. There was a significant difference in the proportion of social needs items with higher endorsement in the computer-based group (70%) than the face-to-face group (30%). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric clinical sites interested in incorporating caregiverreported socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral needs screening should consider electronic screening when feasible, particularly when assessing sensitive topics such as child safety and household member substance use. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

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