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Berg I.J.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | Semb A.G.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | van der Heijde D.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | van der Heijde D.,Leiden University | And 4 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2015

Objective To identify factors associated with elevated arterial stiffness in a 5-year follow-up of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) and AS disease activity score (ASDAS) were recorded in 2003, and arterial stiffness (Augmentation Index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in 2008/2009. Patients were grouped into quartiles according to baseline CRP, ESR and BASDAI and four ASDAS groups. Trend analyses were performed using ANCOVA (AIx/PWV as dependent variable) with separate models for CRP, ESR, BASDAI and ASDAS (age and gender adjusted). Independent predictors of future AIx and PWV levels were identified in multivariate linear regression models. Results In total, 85 patients participated. Increasing baseline values of CRP, ESR and ASDAS were associated with elevated AIx on follow-up (p(trend) 0.01, 0.05 and 0.04, respectively). Similar non-significant patterns were seen for PWV. In the multivariate analyses, baseline CRP and ASDAS were independently associated with future elevated AIx (p=0.03 and0.02, respectively). In the multivariate PWV model, results for CRP and ASDAS were non-significant. Conclusions Baseline CRP and ASDAS were associated with future elevated arterial stiffness measured as AIx, supporting that disease activity is related to future risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with AS. © 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism.

Provan S.A.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | Berg I.J.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | Hammer H.B.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | Mathiessen A.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objectives: To assess whether treatment with one of three novel biological DMARDs; rituximab, abatacept or tocilizumab reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: This is an open, observational and prospective study with visits at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients were assigned to receive rituximab, abatacept or tocilizumab according to clinical indications assessed by an independent rheumatologist. Disease activity was quantified by the disease activity score (DAS28) and extensive ultrasonography. CVD risk was assessed by total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), blood pressure and arterial stiffness measurements [pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx)]. Within group change in disease activity and CVD risk over 3 months was explored using paired samples bivariate tests. Predictors of change in CVD risk at 3 months were identified in linear regression models. Changes in CVD risk markers over the 12- month follow-up in patients receiving rituximab were assessed by mixed models repeated analyses. Results: 24 patients on rituximab, 5 on abatacept and 7 on tocilizumab were included. At 3 months PWV was significantly reduced in the tocilizumab group only, but at 12 months rituximab patients showed a significant reduction in PWV. Reduced inflammation at 3 months was associated with increased TC and HDL-c in the entire cohort. Conclusion: Treatment with tocilizumab and rituximab reduces PWV, a marker of CVD risk, in patients with RA. © 2015 Provan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Rollefstad S.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | Ikdahl E.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | Hisdal J.,University of Oslo | Olsen I.C.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | And 7 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and carotid artery plaques have an increased risk of acute coronary syndromes. Statin treatment with the goal of achieving a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of ≤1.8 mmoles/liter (≤70 mg/dl) is recommended for individuals in the general population who have carotid plaques. The aim of the ROsuvastatin in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis and other inflammatory joint diseases (RORA-AS) study was to evaluate the effect of 18 months of intensive lipid-lowering treatment with rosuvastatin with regard to change in carotid plaque height. Methods Eighty-six patients (60.5% of whom were female) with carotid plaques and inflammatory joint disease (55 with RA, 21 with AS, and 10 with psoriatic arthritis) were treated with rosuvastatin to obtain the LDL cholesterol goal. Carotid plaque height was evaluated by B-mode ultrasonography. Results The mean±SD age of the patients was 60.8±8.5 years, and the median compliance with rosuvastatin treatment was 97.9% (interquartile range [IQR] 96.0-99.4). At baseline, the median number and height of the carotid plaques were 1.0 (range 1-8) and 1.80 mm (IQR 1.60-2.10), respectively. The mean±SD change in carotid plaque height after 18 months of treatment with rosuvastatin was -0.19±0.35 mm (P < 0.0001). The mean±SD baseline LDL cholesterol level was 4.0±0.9 mmoles/liter (154.7±34.8 mg/dl), and the mean reduction in the LDL cholesterol level was -2.3 mmoles/liter (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -2.48, -2.15) (-88.9 mg/dl [95% CI -95.9, -83.1]). The mean ± SD LDL cholesterol level during the 18 months of rosuvastatin treatment was 1.7±0.4 mmoles/liter (area under the curve). After adjustment for age/sex/blood pressure, no linear relationship between a reduction in carotid plaque height and the level of LDL cholesterol exposure during the study period was observed. Attainment of the LDL cholesterol goal of ≤1.8 mmoles/liter (≤70 mg/dl) or the amount of change in the LDL cholesterol level during the study period did not influence the degree of carotid plaque height reduction. Conclusion Intensive lipid-lowering treatment with rosuvastatin induced atherosclerotic regression and reduced the LDL cholesterol level significantly in patients with inflammatory joint disease. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

Ikdahl E.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | Rollefstad S.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | Olsen I.C.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | Kvien T.K.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | And 4 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Objective. EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management include annual CVD risk assessments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the recording of CVD risk factors (CVD-RF) in a rheumatology outpatient clinic, where EULAR recommendations had been implemented. Further, we compared CVD-RF recordings between a regular rheumatology outpatient clinic (RegROC) and a structured arthritis clinic (AC). Methods. In 2012, 1142 RA patients visited the rheumatology outpatient clinic: 612 attended RegROC and 530 attended AC. We conducted a search in the patient journals to ascertain the rate of CVD-RF recording. Results. The overall CVD-RF recording rate was 40.1% in the rheumatology outpatient clinic, reflecting a recording rate of 59.1% in the AC and 23.6% in the RegROC. The odds ratios for having CVD-RFs recorded for patients attending AC compared to RegROC were as follows: blood pressure: 12.4, lipids: 5.0-6.0, glucose: 9.1, HbA1c: 6.1, smoking: 1.4, and for having all the CVD-RFs needed to calculate the CVD risk by the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE): 21.0. Conclusion. The CVD-RF recording rate was low in a rheumatology outpatient clinic. However, a systematic team-based model was superior compared to a RegROC. Further measures are warranted to improve CVD-RF recording in RA patients. Copyright © 2015 Eirik Ikdahl et al.

Midtbo H.,University of Bergen | Semb A.G.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | Matre K.,University of Bergen | Kvien T.K.,Preventive Cardio Rheuma Clinic | Gerdts E.,University of Bergen
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2016

Objectives Disease activity has emerged as a new, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We tested if disease activity in RA was associated with lower left ventricular (LV) systolic function independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Echocardiographic assessment was performed in 78 patients with RA having low, moderate or high disease activity (Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) >3.3), 41 patients in remission (SDAI =3.3) and 46 controls, all without known cardiac disease. LV systolic function was assessed by biplane Simpson ejection fraction, stress-corrected midwall shortening (scMWS) and global longitudinal strain (GLS). Results Patients with active RA had higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes compared with patients in remission and controls (both p<0.05). LV ejection fraction (endocardial function) was normal in all three groups, while mean scMWS and GLS (myocardial function) were reduced in patients with RA with active disease compared with patients with RA in remission (95 ±18% vs 105±17% and -18.9±3.1% vs -20.6 ±3.5%, respectively, both p<0.01). Patients with RA in remission had similar scMWS and GLS as the controls. In multivariable analyses, having active RA was associated with lower GLS (ß=0.21) and scMWS (ß=-0.22, both p<0.05), both reflecting lower LV systolic myocardial function, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and LV ejection fraction. Classification of RA disease activity by other disease activity composite scores yielded similar results. Conclusions Active RA is associated with lower LV systolic myocardial function despite normal ejection fraction and independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. © 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism.

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