Marshfield, WI, United States
Marshfield, WI, United States

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Brown L.M.,Florida College | Corrado M.M.,Florida College | van der Ende R.M.,University of Groningen | Derks T.G.J.,University of Groningen | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2015

Introduction: Ketone formation is a normal response when hypoglycemia occurs. Since the majority of children with recurrent hypoglycemia cannot be diagnosed with a known endocrine or metabolic disorder on a critical sample, ketotic hypoglycemia has been described as the most common cause of low blood glucose concentrations in children. Critical samples, however, will miss the ketotic forms of glycogen storage disease (GSD), which present with elevated ketones, hypoglycemia, and normal hormonal concentrations. Results: A total of 164 children (96 boys, 68 girls) were enrolled in the study. Prediction of pathogenicity of DNA changes using computer modeling confirmed pathology in 20 individuals [four GSD 0, two GSD VI, 12 GSD IX alpha, one GSD IX beta, one GSD IX gamma] (12 %). Boys were most likely to have changes in the PHKA2 gene, consistent with GSD IX alpha, an X-linked disorder. Conclusions: Mutations in genes involved in glycogen synthesis and degradation were commonly found in children with idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia. GSD IX is likely an unappreciated cause of ketotic hypoglycemia in children, while GSD 0 and VI are relatively uncommon. GSD IX alpha should particularly be considered in boys with unexplained hypoglycemia. © 2014, SSIEM.

Marttila M.,University of Helsinki | Lehtokari V.-L.,University of Helsinki | Marston S.,Imperial College London | Nyman T.A.,University of Helsinki | And 34 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2014

Mutations affecting skeletal muscle isoforms of the tropomyosin genes may cause nemaline myopathy, cap myopathy, core-rod myopathy, congenital fiber-type disproportion, distal arthrogryposes, and Escobar syndrome. We correlate the clinical picture of these diseases with novel (19) and previously reported (31) mutations of the TPM2 and TPM3 genes. Included are altogether 93 families: 53 with TPM2 mutations and 40 with TPM3 mutations. Thirty distinct pathogenic variants of TPM2 and 20 of TPM3 have been published or listed in the Leiden Open Variant Database ( Most are heterozygous changes associated with autosomal-dominant disease. Patients with TPM2 mutations tended to present with milder symptoms than those with TPM3 mutations, DA being present only in the TPM2 group. Previous studies have shown that five of the mutations in TPM2 and one in TPM3 cause increased Ca2+ sensitivity resulting in a hypercontractile molecular phenotype. Patients with hypercontractile phenotype more often had contractures of the limb joints (18/19) and jaw (6/19) than those with nonhypercontractile ones (2/22 and 1/22), whereas patients with the non-hypercontractile molecular phenotype more often (19/22) had axial contractures than the hypercontractile group (7/19). Our in silico predictions show that most mutations affect tropomyosin-actin association or tropomyosin head-to-tail binding. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

Willer T.,University of Iowa | Willer T.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Lee H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lommel M.,University of Heidelberg | And 20 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is clinically defined as congenital muscular dystrophy that is accompanied by a variety of brain and eye malformations. It represents the most severe clinical phenotype in a spectrum of diseases associated with abnormal post-translational processing of α-dystroglycan that share a defect in laminin-binding glycan synthesis. Although mutations in six genes have been identified as causes of WWS, only half of all individuals with the disease can currently be diagnosed on this basis. A cell fusion complementation assay in fibroblasts from undiagnosed individuals with WWS was used to identify five new complementation groups. Further evaluation of one group by linkage analysis and targeted sequencing identified recessive mutations in the ISPD gene (encoding isoprenoid synthase domain containing). The pathogenicity of the identified ISPD mutations was shown by complementation of fibroblasts with wild-type ISPD. Finally, we show that recessive mutations in ISPD abolish the initial step in laminin-binding glycan synthesis by disrupting dystroglycan O-mannosylation. This establishes a new mechanism for WWS pathophysiology. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fisher O.S.,Yale University | Liu W.,Yale University | Liu W.,Ocean University of China | Zhang R.,Yale University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are predominantly neurovascular lesions and are associated with mutations within the KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 genes. The protein products of KRIT1 and CCM2 (Krev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1) and cerebral cavernous malformations 2 (CCM2), respectively) directly interact with each other. Disease-associated mutations in KRIT1 and CCM2 mostly result in loss of their protein products, although rare missense point mutations can also occur. From gene sequencing of patients known or suspected to have one or more CCMs, we discover a series of missense point mutations in KRIT1 and CCM2 that result in missense mutations in the CCM2 and KRIT1 proteins. To place these mutations in the context of the molecular level interactions of CCM2 and KRIT1, we map the interaction of KRIT1 and CCM2 and find that the CCM2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain displays a preference toward the third of the three KRIT1 NPX(Y/F) motifs. We determine the 2.75 A˚ co-crystal structure of the CCM2 PTB domain with a peptide corresponding to KRIT1NPX(Y/F)3, revealing a Dab-like PTB fold for CCM2 and its interaction with KRIT1NPX(Y/F)3. We find that several disease-associated missense mutations in CCM2 have the potential to interrupt the KRIT1-CCM2 interaction by destabilizing the CCM2 PTB domain and that a KRIT1 mutation also disrupts this interaction. We therefore provide new insights into the architecture of CCM2 and how the CCM complex is disrupted in CCM disease. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Wu Y.,McMaster University | Weber J.L.,PreventionGenetics | Vladutiu G.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Tarnopolsky M.A.,McMaster University
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2011

McArdle disease is an autosomal recessive glycogenosis due to deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase. It results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene for this enzyme, PYGM. We report six novel mutations in the PYGM gene based upon sequencing data including three missense mutations (p.D51G, p.P398L, and p.N648Y), one nonsense mutation (p.Y75X), one frame-shift mutation (p.Y114SfsX181), and one amino acid deletion (p.Y53del) in six patients with McArdle disease. We also report on a Caucasian family that appeared to transmit McArdle disease in an autosomal dominant manner. In order to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of the sequence variants, we performed in silico analysis using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT BLink, along with species conservation analysis using UCSC Genome Browser. The above mutations were all predicted to be disease associated with high probability and with at least the same level of certainty as several confirmed mutations. The current data add to the list of pathogenic mutations in the PYGM gene associated with McArdle disease. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Brand P.,Mayo Medical School | Dyck P.J.B.,Mayo Medical School | Liu J.,PreventionGenetics | Liu J.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Neuromuscular Disorders | Year: 2016

TIA1 mutations cause Welander distal myopathy. MYH7 mutations result in various clinical phenotypes, including Laing distal myopathy and cardiomyopathy. We describe a family with coexisting TIA1 and MYH7 variants. The proband is a 67-year-old woman with easy tripping since childhood and progressive asymmetric distal limb weakness, but no cardiac involvement. Muscle biopsy showed rare rimmed vacuoles, minicore-like structures and congophilic inclusions. Her 66-year-old sister has a mild distal myopathy, supraventricular tachycardia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Both sisters carry the only known pathogenic TIA1 mutation and a heterozygous MYH7 variant (c.5459G > A; p.Arg1820Gln). Another sibling with isolated distal myopathy carries only the TIA1 mutation. MYH7 p.Arg1820Gln involves a highly conserved residue and is predicted to be deleterious. Furthermore, the proband's childhood-onset distal leg weakness and sister's cardiomyopathy suggest that MYH7 p.Arg1820Gln likely affects function, favoring a digenic etiology of the myopathy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Durrani S.,Aga Khan University | Chicka M.,PreventionGenetics | Afroze B.,Aga Khan University
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Griscelli syndrome type 2 is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the RAB27A gene. It is characterized by pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair causing silvery gray hair, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and characteristic light microscopy findings in scalp hair shaft seen as large irregular clumps of pigment as opposed to the evenly distributed pigment along the hair shaft without any clumps. We describe a boy with classic features of Griscelli syndrome type 2 from Pakistan in whom a homozygous mutation in the RAB27A gene was identified that showed a single base substitution (c.598C>T) predicted to cause premature protein termination (p.Arg200*). We also present a clinical approach to silver blonde hair differentiating between the Griscelli syndrome types 1, 2 and 3, Chediak Hegashi Syndrome and Elejalde Syndrome. © 2015 The Authors.

Lahoria R.,Mayo Medical School | Winder T.L.,PreventionGenetics | Lui J.,PreventionGenetics | Al-Owain M.A.,King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Muscle and Nerve | Year: 2014

Introduction: Recessive mutations in the anoctamin-5 gene (ANO5) cause a spectrum of clinical phenotypes, including limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD 2L), distal myopathy, and asymptomatic hyperCKemia. Methods: In this report we describe our clinical, electrophysiological, pathological, and molecular findings in a subject with anoctaminopathy-5. Results: A 49-year-old Arabic man from a consanguineous family presented with a 5-year history of myalgias, hyperCKemia and an episode of unprovoked rhabdomyolysis. Muscle biopsy showed mild myopathic changes and interstitial amyloid deposition. ANO5 analysis detected a novel homozygous deletion of approximately 11.9 kb encompassing exons 13-17, predicted to be pathogenic. Conclusions: Anoctaminopathy-5 can manifest with a phenotype reminiscent of metabolic myopathy and should be considered as a potential cause of myalgia and myoglobinuria. Amyloid deposition in the muscle biopsy is helpful for the diagnosis. A novel homozygous ANO5 deletion was identified, suggesting that screening for common mutations may have low yield in non-European subjects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Milone M.,Mayo Medical School | Liewluck T.,Mayo Medical School | Winder T.L.,PreventionGenetics | Pianosi P.T.,Mayo Medical School
Neuromuscular Disorders | Year: 2012

Anoctamin 5 and dysferlin mutations can result in myopathies with similar clinical phenotype. Amyloid deposits can occur in the muscle of patients with dysferlinopathy. We describe a 53-year-old woman with exercise intolerance since childhood, recurrent rhabdomyolysis and late-onset weakness. Muscle biopsy showed amyloid deposits within the blood vessel walls and around muscle fibers. Mutation analysis identified two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in anoctamin 5 and no mutations in dysferlin. To our knowledge this is the first report of muscle amyloidosis in anoctamin 5 muscular dystrophy. This finding suggests that patients with amyloid in muscle should be screened for anoctamin 5 muscular dystrophy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | PreventionGenetics, University of California at San Francisco, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, National Cancer Institute and U.S. National Institutes of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human mutation | Year: 2016

Some variants that cause autosomal-recessive congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) also cause hypermobility type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) due to the monoallelic presence of a chimera disrupting two flanking genes: CYP21A2, encoding 21-hydroxylase, necessary for cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis, and TNXB, encoding tenascin-X, an extracellular matrix protein. Two types of CAH tenascin-X (CAH-X) chimeras have been described with a total deletion of CYP21A2 and characteristic TNXB variants. CAH-X CH-1 has a TNXB exon 35 120-bp deletion resulting in haploinsufficiency, and CAH-X CH-2 has a TNXB exon 40 c.12174C>G (p.Cys4058Trp) variant resulting in a dominant-negative effect. We present here three patients with biallelic CAH-X and identify a novel dominant-negative chimera termed CAH-X CH-3. Compared with monoallelic CAH-X, biallelic CAH-X results in a more severe phenotype with skin features characteristic of classical EDS. We present evidence for disrupted tenascin-X function and computational data linking the type of TNXB variant to disease severity.

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