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Smith R.L.,Urbana University | Flaws J.A.,Urbana University | Gallicchio L.,Prevention and Research Center
Maturitas | Year: 2015

Epidemiological studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of midlife hot flashes; however, the effect of quitting smoking on this risk is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of quitting smoking on hot flashes using data from 761 women aged 45 to 54 years of age at baseline followed for 1 to 7 years. Results showed that women who quit smoking were less likely to suffer from hot flashes, less likely to have severe hot flashes, and less likely to have frequent hot flashes than women who continued to smoke (OR = 0.55, 0.80, 0.76), but were more likely to suffer from any hot flashes, more severe hot flashes, and more frequent hot flashes than women who never smoked (OR = 2.55, 1.68, 1.46). Subset analysis of the 353 women who had ever smoked found that women who had quit smoking for longer than 5 years had significantly lower odds, severity, and frequency of hot flashes than women who had continued smoking (OR = 0.36, 0.62, 0.63) or women who had quit in the previous 5 years (OR = 0.66, 0.77, 0.69). These findings suggest that that early smoking cessation programs may improve women's well-being during the menopausal transition. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Helzlsouer K.J.,Prevention and Research Center
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010

The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP) brought together 10 cohorts to conduct a prospective study of the association between vitamin D status, measured as serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and the development of 7 rarer cancer sites: endometrial, esophageal, gastric, kidney, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. The cohorts come from 3 continents, with participants from a wide range of latitude who are racially diverse. Across each cancer site, there was no evidence of a protective association between higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (>75 nmol/L) and cancer outcome. An increased risk at very high levels (≥100 nmol/L) was noted for pancreatic cancer, confirming previous reports. The articles included in this issue detail the overall design and governance of the project, correlates of vitamin D status, and results from the cancer site-specific investigations. The Vitamin D Pooling Project realizes a major goal of consortium efforts, namely, to rigorously test hypotheses for rarer cancer outcomes that may not be adequately addressed in any one prospective cohort study. The results of this study have application for the planning and conduct of intervention trials, especially in determining potential risks. © The Author 2010.

Yeh H.-C.,Johns Hopkins University | Platz E.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Wang N.-Y.,Johns Hopkins University | Visvanathan K.,Johns Hopkins University | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - To quantify the association of treated diabetes with cancer incidence and cancer mortality as well as cancer case fatality and all-cause mortality in adults who subsequently develop cancer and to calculate attributable fractions due to diabetes on various cancer outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Prospective data on 599 diabetic and 17,681 nondiabetic adults from the CLUE II (Give Us a Clue to Cancer and Heart Disease) cohort in Washington County, Maryland, were analyzed. Diabetes was defined by self-reported use of diabetes medications at baseline. Cancer incidence was ascertained using county and state cancer registries. Mortality data were obtained from death certificates. RESULTS - From 1989 to 2006, 116 diabetic and 2,365 nondiabetic adults developed cancer, corresponding to age-adjusted incidence of 13.25 and 10.58 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Adjusting for age, sex, education, BMI, smoking, hypertension treatment, and high cholesterol treatment using Cox proportional hazards regression, diabetes was associated with a higher risk of incident cancer (hazard ratio 1.22 [95% CI 0.98-1.53]) and cancer mortality (1.36 [1.02-1.81]). In individuals who developed cancer, adults with diabetes had a higher risk of cancer case fatality (1.34 [1.002-1.79]) and all-cause mortality (1.61 [1.29-2.01]). For colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers, the attributable fractions resulting fromdiabeteswere larger for cancer fatality and mortality than cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS - In this prospective cohort, diabetes appears to exert a greater influence downstream on the risk of mortality in people with cancer than on upstream risk of incident cancer. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.

Braid S.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Harvey E.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Bernstein J.,Prevention and Research Center | Matoba N.,Northwestern University
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the odds of early introduction of solid foods in a nationally representative sample of preterm infants when compared with term infants and to examine whether factors associated with early introduction are the same for preterm and term infants. Methods: Our sample of 7650 came from the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001-2002). We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine whether preterm infants were introduced to solid foods more frequently before 4 months than term infants using adjusted age for preterm infants and chronological age for term infants. In a separate analysis in preterm infants, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine whether the factors associated with early introduction in term infants were the same in the preterm sample. Results: Infants born 22 to 32 weeks' gestation had a 9.90 (95% confidence interval 5.54-18.0) odds of being fed solid food before 4 months compared with term infants, and infants born 33 to 36 weeks' gestation had a 6.19 (95% confidence interval 4.58-8.36) odds. Race/ethnicity and maternal smoking were the only factors that predicted early solid feeding in both preterm and term infants; the remaining predictors differed. Conclusions: Preterm infants are significantly more likely to be introduced to complementary foods early compared with term infants. The predictors of early solid feeding differ for preterm infants. Given the health implications, specific guidelines for preterm infants should be developed and future research should examine predictors of early introduction in preterm infants. Copyright © 2015 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

Gallicchio L.,Prevention and Research Center | MacDonald R.,Prevention and Research Center | Wood B.,Prevention and Research Center | Rushovich E.,Center for Endocrinology | Helzlsouer K.J.,Prevention and Research Center
Climacteric | Year: 2012

Objectives: To examine self-reported menopausal-type symptoms among breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors (AIs) compared to women of the same age who had not been diagnosed with cancer, and to determine whether the percentage of breast cancer patients experiencing these symptoms changed over the first 6 months of AI treatment. Methods: Data from a 6-month cohort study of 100 breast cancer patients initiating AI therapy and of 200 women of a similar age without a history of cancer were analyzed. At baseline (prior to the initiation of AI therapy among the breast cancer patients), 3 months, and 6 months, a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to participants that ascertained data on the experiencing of specific menopausal-type symptoms. Results: The data showed statistically significant increases in the prevalence of certain symptoms from baseline to either follow-up point among the breast cancer patients; these symptoms included hot flushes, night sweats, pain during intercourse, hair loss, forgetfulness, depression, difficulty falling asleep, and interrupted sleep. Additionally, breast cancer patients were more likely than the women in the comparison group to report the new onset of many of these same symptoms during the follow-up time period. Conclusions: Because bothersome symptoms and side-effects are a major reason for discontinuation and non-adherence to treatment, symptoms should be monitored and addressed by oncologists so that the breast cancer patient can maintain her quality of life and remain adherent to the treatment schedule. © 2012 International Menopause Society.

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