Finkelstein E.A.,National University of Singapore |
Strombotne K.L.,National University of Singapore |
Chan N.L.,Assessment |
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011
Background As part of a comprehensive effort to stem the rise in obesity, King County, Washington, enforced a mandatory menu-labeling regulation requiring all restaurant chains with 15 or more locations to disclose calorie information at the point of purchase beginning in January 2009. Purpose The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of the King County regulation on transactions and purchasing behavior at one Mexican fast-food chain with locations within and adjacent to King County. Methods To examine the effect of the King County regulation, a difference-in-difference approach was used to compare total transactions and average calories per transaction between seven King County restaurants and seven control locations focusing on two time periods: one period immediately following the law until the posting of drive-through menu boards (January 2009 to July 2009) and a second period following the drive-through postings (August 2009 through January 2010). Analyses were conducted in 2010. Results No impact of the regulation on purchasing behavior was found. Trends in transactions and calories per transaction did not vary between control and intervention locations after the law was enacted. Conclusions In this setting, mandatory menu labeling did not promote healthier food-purchasing behavior. © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Christensen B.E.,Prevention |
Duncan M.A.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry |
King S.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Hunter C.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry |
And 2 more authors.
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness | Year: 2016
Objective A chlorine gas release occurred at a poultry processing plant as a result of an accidental mixing of sodium hypochlorite and an acidic antimicrobial treatment. We evaluated the public health and emergency medical services response and developed and disseminated public health recommendations to limit the impact of future incidents. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with the state health department; local fire, emergency medical services, and police departments; county emergency management; and representatives from area hospitals to understand the response mechanisms employed for this incident. Results After being exposed to an estimated 40-pound chlorine gas release, 170 workers were triaged on the scene and sent to 5 area hospitals. Each hospital redistributed staff or called in extra staff (eg, physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists) in response to the event. Interviews with hospital staff emphasized the need for improved communication with responders at the scene of a chemical incident. Conclusions While responding, hospitals handled the patient surge without outside assistance because of effective planning, training, and drilling. The investigation highlighted that greater interagency communication can play an important role in ensuring that chemical incident patients are managed and treated in a timely manner. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:553-556). Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2016.
Gillies D.,Western Sydney and Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health Districts Mental Health |
Taylor F.,Prevention |
Gray C.,A+ Network |
O'Brien L.,University of New South Wales |
D'Abrew N.,University of Sydney
Evidence-Based Child Health | Year: 2013
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents who have experienced trauma and has high personal and health costs. Although a wide range of psychological therapies have been used in the treatment of PTSD there are no systematic reviews of these therapies in children and adolescents. Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of psychological therapies in treating children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with PTSD. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) to December 2011. The CCDANCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (all years), EMBASE (1974 -), MEDLINE (1950 -) and PsycINFO (1967 -). We also checked reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. We applied no date or language restrictions. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials of psychological therapies compared to a control, pharmacological therapy or other treatments in children or adolescents exposed to a traumatic event or diagnosed with PTSD. Data collection and analysis: Two members of the review group independently extracted data. If differences were identified, they were resolved by consensus, or referral to the review team. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) for binary outcomes, the standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous outcomes, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for both, using a fixed-effect model. If heterogeneity was found we used a random-effects model. Main results: Fourteen studies including 758 participants were included in this review. The types of trauma participants had been exposed to included sexual abuse, civil violence, natural disaster, domestic violence and motor vehicle accidents. Most participants were clients of a trauma-related support service. The psychological therapies used in these studies were cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), exposure-based, psychodynamic, narrative, supportive counselling, and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR). Most compared a psychological therapy to a control group. No study compared psychological therapies to pharmacological therapies alone or as an adjunct to a psychological therapy. Across all psychological therapies, improvement was significantly better (three studies, n = 80, OR 4.21, 95% CI 1.12 to 15.85) and symptoms of PTSD (seven studies, n = 271, SMD -0.90, 95% CI -1.24 to -0.42), anxiety (three studies, n = 91, SMD -0.57, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.13) and depression (five studies, n = 156, SMD -0.74, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.36) were significantly lower within a month of completing psychological therapy compared to a control group. The psychological therapy for which there was the best evidence of effectiveness was CBT. Improvement was significantly better for up to a year following treatment (up to one month: two studies, n = 49, OR 8.64, 95% CI 2.01 to 37.14; up to one year: one study, n = 25, OR 8.00, 95% CI 1.21 to 52.69). PTSD symptom scores were also significantly lower for up to one year (up to one month: three studies, n = 98, SMD -1.34, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.89; up to one year: one study, n = 36, SMD -0.73, 95% CI -1.44 to -0.01), and depression scores were lower for up to a month (three studies, n = 98, SMD -0.80, 95% CI -1.47 to -0.13) in the CBT group compared to a control. No adverse effects were identified. No study was rated as a high risk for selection or detection bias but a minority were rated as a high risk for attrition, reporting and other bias. Most included studies were rated as an unclear risk for selection, detection and attrition bias. Authors' conclusions: There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapies, particularly CBT, for treating PTSD in children and adolescents for up to a month following treatment. At this stage, there is no clear evidence for the effectiveness of one psychological therapy compared to others. There is also not enough evidence to conclude that children and adolescents with particular types of trauma are more or less likely to respond to psychological therapies than others. The findings of this review are limited by the potential for methodological biases, and the small number and generally small size of identified studies. In addition, there was evidence of substantial heterogeneity in some analyses which could not be explained by subgroup or sensitivity analyses. More evidence is required for the effectiveness of all psychological therapies more than one month after treatment. Much more evidence is needed to demonstrate the relative effectiveness of different psychological therapies or the effectiveness of psychological therapies compared to other treatments. More details are required in future trials in regards to the types of trauma that preceded the diagnosis of PTSD and whether the traumas are single event or ongoing. Future studies should also aim to identify the most valid and reliable measures of PTSD symptoms and ensure that all scores, total and sub-scores, are consistently reported. Plain Language Summary: Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents who have experienced trauma and has high personal and health costs. The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of all psychological therapies for the treatment of PTSD in children and adolescents. We searched for all randomised controlled trials comparing psychological therapies to a control, other psychological therapies or other therapies for the treatment of PTSD in children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years. We identified 14 studies with a total of 758 participants. The types of trauma related to the PTSD were sexual abuse, civil violence, natural disaster, domestic violence and motor vehicle accidents. Most participants were clients of a trauma-related support service. The psychological therapies used in the included studies were cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), exposure-based, psychodynamic, narrative, supportive counselling, and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR). Most included studies compared a psychological therapy to a control group. No study compared psychological therapies to medications or medications in combination with a psychological therapy. There was fair evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapies, particularly CBT, for the treatment of PTSD in children and adolescents for up to a month following treatment. More evidence is required for the effectiveness of psychological therapies in the longer term and to be able to compare the effectiveness of one psychological therapy to another. The findings of this review are limited by the potential for bias in the included studies, possible differences between studies which could not be identified, the small number of identified studies and the low number of participants in most studies. © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..
Tinelli M.,Hospital of Lodi |
Mannino S.,Cervello |
Lucchi S.,Local Health Agency of Cremona Province |
Piatti A.,University of Milan |
And 7 more authors.
Infection | Year: 2011
Background Little data are available on the frequency and risk factors for infection in patients in rehabilitation units. Methods This was a 2-year retrospective cohort study conducted in 131 rehabilitation units (RUs) of the Lombardy Region, including those for patients requiring musculoskeletal, cardiac, respiratory, neurological and general geriatric rehabilitation. RUs were stratified into three groups by infection rate calculated from administrative data, and a random sample of RUs in each group was selected for analysis. Discharges from these RUs were randomly selected for chart review, and healthcare-acquired infection was confirmed using CDC/NHSN definitions. A logistic regression analysis explored the association among demographic variables of age, sex, type of rehabilitation unit, Charlson comorbidity score, and location prior to RU admission for selected infections. Results For the 3,028 discharges from 28 RUs, hospital administrative data had a sensitivity of 0.45 and a positive predictive value of 0.89 to identify infections in the chart review. At least one infection occurred in 14.9% of patient discharges, with 71% of infections being urinary, 8.0% respiratory, and 5% skin and soft tissue. Urinary infection was associated with female sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.93], age 75-85 years (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.12-4.34), Charlson comorbidity score of ≥3 (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.10-2.17), and the transfer from acute care (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). For respiratory infection, male sex (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.51-6.18), comorbidity score of 1 or 2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.08-4.36), and transfer from a healthcare setting other than an acute care hospital were independent risks (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.15-8.53). Conclusion Infections are common in residents of these rehabilitation units, and risk factors may differ with type of infection. The proportion of infections which may be prevented and effective prevention strategies need to be determined. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Odafe S.,Prevention |
Torpey K.,Prevention |
Khamofu H.,Prevention |
Ogbanufe O.,Prevention |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Objective: To evaluate the rate and factors associated with attrition of patients receiving ART in tertiary and secondary hospitals in Nigeria. Methods and Findings: We reviewed patient level data collected between 2007 and 2010 from 11 hospitals across Nigeria. Kaplan-Meier product-limit and Cox regression were used to determine probability of retention in care and risk factors for attrition respectively. Of 6,408 patients in the cohort, 3,839 (59.9%) were females, median age of study population was 33years (IQR: 27-40) and 4,415 (69%) were from secondary health facilities. The NRTI backbone was Stavudine (D4T) in 3708 (57.9%) and Zidovudine (ZDV) in 2613 (40.8%) of patients. Patients lost to follow up accounted for 62.7% of all attrition followed by treatment stops (25.3%) and deaths (12.0%). Attrition was 14.1 (N = 624) and 15.1% (N = 300) in secondary and tertiary hospitals respectively (p = 0.169) in the first 12 months on follow up. During the 13 to 24 months follow up period, attrition was 10.7% (N = 407) and 19.6% (N = 332) in secondary and tertiary facilities respectively (p<0.001). Median time to lost to follow up was 11.1 (IQR: 6.1 to 18.5) months in secondary compared with 13.6 (IQR: 9.9 to 17.0) months in tertiary sites (p = 0.002). At 24 months follow up, male gender [AHR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.37, P = 0.038]; WHO clinical stage III [AHR 1.30, 95%CI: 1.03-1.66, P = 0.03] and clinical stage IV [AHR 1.90, 95%CI: 1.20-3.02, p = 0.007] and care in a tertiary hospital [AHR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.83-2.67, p<0.001], were associated with attrition. Conclusion: Attrition could potentially be reduced by decentralizing patients on ART after the first 12 months on therapy to lower level facilities, earlier initiation on treatment and strengthening adherence counseling amongst males. © 2012 Odafe et al.