Prevention

Abuja, Nigeria

Prevention

Abuja, Nigeria
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Odafe S.,Prevention | Torpey K.,Prevention | Khamofu H.,Prevention | Ogbanufe O.,Prevention | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the rate and factors associated with attrition of patients receiving ART in tertiary and secondary hospitals in Nigeria. Methods and Findings: We reviewed patient level data collected between 2007 and 2010 from 11 hospitals across Nigeria. Kaplan-Meier product-limit and Cox regression were used to determine probability of retention in care and risk factors for attrition respectively. Of 6,408 patients in the cohort, 3,839 (59.9%) were females, median age of study population was 33years (IQR: 27-40) and 4,415 (69%) were from secondary health facilities. The NRTI backbone was Stavudine (D4T) in 3708 (57.9%) and Zidovudine (ZDV) in 2613 (40.8%) of patients. Patients lost to follow up accounted for 62.7% of all attrition followed by treatment stops (25.3%) and deaths (12.0%). Attrition was 14.1 (N = 624) and 15.1% (N = 300) in secondary and tertiary hospitals respectively (p = 0.169) in the first 12 months on follow up. During the 13 to 24 months follow up period, attrition was 10.7% (N = 407) and 19.6% (N = 332) in secondary and tertiary facilities respectively (p<0.001). Median time to lost to follow up was 11.1 (IQR: 6.1 to 18.5) months in secondary compared with 13.6 (IQR: 9.9 to 17.0) months in tertiary sites (p = 0.002). At 24 months follow up, male gender [AHR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.37, P = 0.038]; WHO clinical stage III [AHR 1.30, 95%CI: 1.03-1.66, P = 0.03] and clinical stage IV [AHR 1.90, 95%CI: 1.20-3.02, p = 0.007] and care in a tertiary hospital [AHR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.83-2.67, p<0.001], were associated with attrition. Conclusion: Attrition could potentially be reduced by decentralizing patients on ART after the first 12 months on therapy to lower level facilities, earlier initiation on treatment and strengthening adherence counseling amongst males. © 2012 Odafe et al.


Christensen B.E.,Prevention | Duncan M.A.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry | King S.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hunter C.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry | And 2 more authors.
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness | Year: 2016

Objective A chlorine gas release occurred at a poultry processing plant as a result of an accidental mixing of sodium hypochlorite and an acidic antimicrobial treatment. We evaluated the public health and emergency medical services response and developed and disseminated public health recommendations to limit the impact of future incidents. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with the state health department; local fire, emergency medical services, and police departments; county emergency management; and representatives from area hospitals to understand the response mechanisms employed for this incident. Results After being exposed to an estimated 40-pound chlorine gas release, 170 workers were triaged on the scene and sent to 5 area hospitals. Each hospital redistributed staff or called in extra staff (eg, physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists) in response to the event. Interviews with hospital staff emphasized the need for improved communication with responders at the scene of a chemical incident. Conclusions While responding, hospitals handled the patient surge without outside assistance because of effective planning, training, and drilling. The investigation highlighted that greater interagency communication can play an important role in ensuring that chemical incident patients are managed and treated in a timely manner. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:553-556). Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2016.

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