Presidency of the Council of Ministers

Rome, Italy

Presidency of the Council of Ministers

Rome, Italy
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Dolce M.,Presidency of the Council of Ministers | Di Bucci D.,Seismic and Volcanic Risk Office
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2015

A comprehensive comparison among the three strongest earthquakes occurred in Italy in the past 30 years is presented. These three earthquakes struck the regions of Umbria and Marche in 1997, Abruzzo in 2009, and Emilia-Romagna, Lombardia and Veneto in 2012, respectively. They were assigned exactly the same local magnitude, Ml5.9, and comparable focal depths. In spite of having occurred in the same country, these earthquakes displayed considerable differences from both the scientific and the civil protection points of view. Differences can be ascribed to the released energy, the seismotectonic and geomorphological features, as well as the diverse population density, building features and socio-economic conditions that characterize the three epicentral areas. Nevertheless, the overall economic losses come out to be almost the same, although deriving from quite diverse distributions among the different categories of costs. Differences and similarities among the three events are carefully analysed and discussed in the paper. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Mercolini L.,University of Bologna | Mandrioli R.,University of Bologna | Protti M.,University of Bologna | Conti M.,Irst Cancer Institute Of Romagna | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2013

An advanced analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), has been developed for the identification and determination in hair of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol together with its major metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Since the latter is formed endogenously, it allows the assessment of chronic use excluding passive exposure to Cannabis. The sample pre-treatment procedure is based on a feasible incubative extraction followed by a liquid-liquid extraction step. Chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution with a formic acid/acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The limits of quantitation and of detection were 3pg/mg and 1pg/mg, respectively, for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of hair samples from Cannabis abusers; the analyte concentrations found ranged from 55 to 100pg/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and from 5 to 10pg/mg for 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Accuracy studies also gave satisfactory results (recovery>87%), thus confirming the suitability of the assay for chronic consumption monitoring. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Liotta E.,University of Verona | Gottardo R.,University of Verona | Seri C.,National Early Warning System | Rimondo C.,National Early Warning System | And 3 more authors.
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

A novel method based on microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) with diode array detection (DAD) for rapid determination of caffeine in commercial and clandestine stimulants, known as " energy drinks" and " smart drugs" , is described. Separations were carried out in 50. cm. ×. 50. μm (ID) uncoated fused silica capillaries. The optimized buffer electrolyte was composed of 8.85. mM sodium tetraborate pH 9.5, SDS 3.3% (w/v), . n-hexane 1.5% (v/v) and 1-butanol 6.6% (v/v). Separations were performed at a voltage of 20. kV. Sample injection conditions were 0.5. psi, 3. s. Diprofilline was used as internal standard. The determination of the analytes was based on the UV signal recorded at 275. nm, corresponding to the maximum wavelength of absorbance of caffeine, whereas peak identification and purity check was performed on the basis of the acquisition of UV radiation between 200 and 400. nm wavelengths. Under the described conditions, the separation of the compounds was achieved in 6. min without any interference from the matrix. Linearity was assessed within a caffeine concentration range from 5 to 100. μg/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision values were below 0.37% for migration times and below 9.86% for peak areas. The present MEEKC method was successfully applied to the direct determination of caffeine in smart drugs and energy drinks. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Gottardo R.,University of Verona | Chiarini A.,University of Verona | Dal Pra I.,University of Verona | Seri C.,National Early Warning System | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Since 2004, a number of herbal blends containing different synthetic compounds mimicking the pharmacological activity of cannabinoids and displaying a high toxicological potential have appeared in the market. Their availability is mainly based on the so-called "e-commerce", being sold as legal alternatives to cannabis and cannabis derivatives. Although highly selective, sensitive, accurate, and quantitative methods based on GC-MS and LC-MS are available, they lack simplicity, rapidity, versatility and throughput, which are required for product monitoring. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers a simple and rapid operation with high throughput. Thus, the aim of the present work was to develop a MALDI-TOF MS method for the rapid qualitative direct analysis of herbal blend preparations for synthetic cannabinoids to be used as front screening of confiscated clandestine preparations. The sample preparation was limited to herbal blend leaves finely grinding in a mortar and loading onto the MALDI plate followed by addition of 2 μl of the matrix/surfactant mixture [α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)]. After drying, the sample plate was introduced into the ion source for analysis. MALDI-TOF conditions were as follows: mass spectra were analyzed in the range m/z 150-550 by averaging the data from 50 laser shots and using an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The described method was successfully applied to the screening of 31 commercial herbal blends, previously analyzed by GC-MS. Among the samples analyzed, 21 contained synthetic cannabinoids (namely JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-250, JWH-210, JWH-019, and AM-694). All the results were in agreement with GC-MS, which was used as the reference technique. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Gottardo R.,University of Verona | Sorio D.,University of Verona | Musile G.,University of Verona | Trapani E.,University of Verona | And 3 more authors.
Medicine, Science and the Law | Year: 2014

The current analytical technology for the determination of New Psychoactive Substances in biological samples is still largely inadequate, because the immunoassays are unsuitable for the detection of most of these compounds and the use of traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques is hampered by the lack of chromatographic standards and mass fragmentation patterns. Taking advantage of the molecular recognition capability of high-resolution mass spectrometry, the present work aimed to apply liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of New Psychoactive Substances in the hair, a peculiar tissue which "keeps memory" of the recent history of drug intake of the subject. All the samples were screened for the presence of 50 different New Psychoactive Substances (synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and phenethylamines), substances that had been reported officially by the National Early Warning System in the period 2009-2011. Among the 435 samples analyzed, 8 were found "positive" for the following compounds: JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-250, JWH-122, in a broad range of concentrations (0.010-1.28 ng/mg). Results strongly support the use of hair analysis to monitor the diffusion of new psychoactive drugs in the community. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Gottardo R.,University of Verona | Bertaso A.,University of Verona | Pascali J.,University of Verona | Sorio D.,University of Verona | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

For the first time a capillary separation based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with diode array detection (DAD) was developed and validated for the rapid determination of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends. Separations were carried out on a 30 μm. (ID) × 40. cm uncoated fused silica capillaries. The optimized buffer electrolyte was composed of 25. mM sodium tetraborate pH 8.0, 30. mM SDS and n-propanol 20% (v/v). Separations were performed at 30. kV. Sample injection conditions were 0.5. psi, 10. s. Diazepam and JWH-015 were used as internal standards. The determination of the analytes was based on the UV signal recorded at 220. nm, corresponding to the maximum wavelength of absorbance of the molecules, whereas peak identification and purity check were also performed on the basis of the acquisition of UV spectra between 200 and 400. nm wavelengths. Under the described conditions, the separation of the compounds was achieved in 25. min without any significant interference from the matrix. Linearity was assessed within a concentration range from 5 to 100 μg/mL. The intra-day and inter-day imprecision values were below 2.45% for relative migration times and below 10.75% for relative peak areas. The present method was successfully applied to the direct determination of synthetic cannabinoids in 15 different herbal blend samples requiring only sample dilution. In addition, the developed MEKC separation was also applied to estimate the octanol/water partition coefficients (log. P) of these new and poorly known molecules. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Marzano F.S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Marzano F.S.,University of L'Aquila | Picciotti E.,University of L'Aquila | Montopoli M.,University of L'Aquila | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

Ash clouds due to volcanic eruptions can be detected in near real-time, quantitatively retrieved, and microphysically characterized by using ground-based microwave weather radars and their high-resolution spatial-temporal coverage. Remote sensing techniques represent a unique supporting tool to be exploited for this scope. They allow for observation of the evolution of some key parameters of volcanic eruptions without direct interaction between the measurement system and the target of the measure. Ground-based microwave scanning weather radars can gather three-dimensional information of ash cloud scattering volumes with ranges up to hundreds of kilometers in all weather conditions at a high spatial resolution and with a repetition cycle of several minutes. A quantitative estimate of ash category and concentration can be accomplished with a fairly good degree of confidence within the radar coverage area.


Strano-Rossi S.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Anzillotti L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Castrignano E.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Felli M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the direct analysis in oral fluid (OF) of several abused drugs and metabolites in a single chromatographic run was set up and validated. Amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, O-6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, codeine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methadone, benzoylecgonine (BEG), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), ketamine, and cocaethylene were determined in a single chromatographic run with no sample pretreatment, after addition of the respective deuterated internal standards. The method was designed to perform a confirmation analysis on the residual OF samples after the preliminary on-site screening test, and it was applied on preservative buffers from different devices (Mavand Rapidstat, Concateno DDS, and Greiner Bio-One) or on neat OF samples. The method was suitable to be applied to the small amounts of sample available for the confirmatory analysis after the preliminary on-site screening or on undiluted OF samples. Limits of detection varied from 5 (morphine) to 0.2 ng/mL (methamphetamine, MDMA, BEG, and cocaethylene). The method was linear for all the substances involved, giving quadratic correlation coefficients of >0.99 in all the different preservative buffers checked. In addition, repeatability and accuracy were satisfactory for the majority of the substances, except for a few cases. The developed method was subsequently applied to 466 residual samples from on-site screening performed by police officers. Of these samples, 74 showed the presence of cocaine and metabolites; THC was detected in 49 samples. Two samples showed codeine and morphine while MDMA was detected in 11 samples and ketamine in four samples. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Gabrielli F.,Presidency of the Council of Ministers | Di Bucci D.,Presidency of the Council of Ministers
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

In his paper on the so-called L’Aquila trial, David Alexander (2014) states that “much of the international reaction to the trial was misguided because it was based on incomplete, second-hand information about the proceedings.” To support this hypothesis, his reasoning process refers back to the entire National Service of Civil Protection of Italy and, in particular, to the Italian Department of Civil Protection. As civil servants of this Department who are well aware of the circumstances treated, we would like to comment some of the Alexander’s statements, which present a partial, if not totally incorrect, representation of events. This comment, however, is not aimed at providing alternative and exhaustive representations or interpretations of the events, but rather at allowing the reader to form his own opinion with a more comprehensive description of the circumstances treated by Alexander. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Dolce M.,Presidency of the Council of Ministers
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing | Year: 2015

A great complexity characterizes the relationships between science and civil protection. Science attains advances that can allow civil protection organizations to make decisions and undertake actions more and more effectively. Provided that these advances are consolidated and shared by a large part of the scientific community, civil protection has to take them into account in its operational procedures and in its decision-making processes, and it has to do this while growing side by side with the scientific knowledge, avoiding any late pursuit. The aim of the talk is to outline the general framework and the boundary conditions, to describe the overall model of such relationships and the current state-of-the-art, focusing on the major results achieved in Italy and on the many criticalities, with special regards to research on seismc risk. Among the boundary conditions, the question of the different roles and responsibilities in the decision-making process will be addressed, dealing in particular with the contribution of scientists and decision-makers, among the others, in the risk management. In this frame, the different kinds of contributions that civil protection receives from the scientific community will be treated. Some of them are directly planned, asked and funded by civil protection. Some contributions come instead from research that the scientific community develops in other frameworks. All of them represent an added value from which civil protection wants to take advantage, but only after a necessary endorsement by a large part of the scientific community and an indispensable adaptation to civil protection utilization. This is fundamental in order to avoid that any decision and any consequent action, which could in principle affect the life and property of many citizens, be undertaken on the basis of non-consolidated and/or minor and/or not shared scientific achievements. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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