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Ezzati M.,University College London | Bainbridge A.,University College London | Broad K.D.,University College London | Kawano G.,University College London | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a promising therapeutic intervention whereby brief episodes of ischemia/reperfusion of one organ (limb) mitigate damage in another organ (brain) that has experienced severe hypoxia-ischemia. Our aim was to assess whether RIPostC is protective following cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in a piglet model of neonatal encephalopathy (NE) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers and immunohistochemistry. After hypoxia-ischemia (HI), 16 Large White female newborn piglets were randomized to: (i) no intervention (n = 8); (ii) RIPostC - with four, 10-min cycles of bilateral lower limb ischemia/reperfusion immediately after HI (n = 8). RIPostC reduced the hypoxic-ischemic-induced increase in white matter proton MRS lactate/N acetyl aspartate (p = 0.005) and increased whole brain phosphorus-31 MRS ATP (p = 0.039) over the 48 h after HI. Cell death was reduced with RIPostC in the periventricular white matter (p = 0.03), internal capsule (p = 0.002) and corpus callosum (p = 0.021); there was reduced microglial activation in corpus callosum (p = 0.001) and more surviving oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum (p = 0.029) and periventricular white matter (p = 0.001). Changes in gene expression were detected in the white matter at 48 h, including K ATP channel and endothelin A receptor. Immediate RIPostC is a potentially safe and promising brain protective therapy for babies with NE with protection in white but not grey matter. © The Author(s) 2015.

Pidoux G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pidoux G.,University of Paris Descartes | Pidoux G.,University Paris - Sud | Gerbaud P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by Nacetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. © 2015 Pidoux et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Lopez E.,University of Paris Descartes | Lopez E.,Groupe Hospitalier Cochin Saint Vincent Of Paul | Jarreau P.-H.,University of Paris Descartes | Jarreau P.-H.,Groupe Hospitalier Cochin Saint Vincent Of Paul | And 11 more authors.
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2010

During the perinatal period, lungs undergo changes to adapt to air breathing. The genes involved in these changes are developmentally regulated by various signaling pathways, including the cyclic nucleotide cAMP. As PDE4s are critical enzymes for regulation of cAMP levels, the objective of this study was to investigate PDE4's ontogeny in developing rat lung during the perinatal period. Pulmonary PDE4 activity, PDE4A-D, PDE4B, and PDE4D variant expression levels, PDE4B and PDE4D protein levels, and PDE4D localization in distal lung were determined. PDE4 activity increased towards term, dropped at birth, and increased thereafter to reach a plateau at the end of the second week of life. PDE4B2 and PDE4D long forms demonstrated a pattern of expression that increased markedly at birth. After birth, PDE4D was expressed in alveolar epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The study, therefore, evidenced striking variations in expression patterns among the PDE4 family that differed from changes in global PDE4 activity. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Guillaume S.,Reanimation et Pediatrie Neonatales | Michelin N.,PremUp | Amrani E.,PremUp | Amrani E.,Center Hospitalier Intercommunal Of Creteil | And 18 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Background: During the first weeks of hospitalization, premature babies and their parents encounter difficulties in establishing early bonds and interactions. Only a few studies have explored what caregivers can do to meet parents' needs in relation to these interactions and help optimize them. This study sought to explore parents' perception of these first interactions and to identify the actions of caregivers that help or hinder its development.Methods: Prospective study, qualitative discourse analysis of 60 face-to-face interviews conducted with 30 mothers and 30 fathers of infants born before 32 weeks of gestation (mean ± SD: 27 ± 2 weeks of gestational age), during their child's stay in one out of three NICUs in France. Interviews explored parental experience, from before birth up to the first month of life.Results: Data analysis uncovered two main themes, which were independent of parents' geographical or cultural origin but differed between mothers and fathers. First, fathers described the bond with their child as composed more of words and looks and involving distance, while mothers experienced the bond more physically. Secondly, two aspects of the caregivers' influence were decisive: nurses' caring attitude towards baby and parents, and their communication with parents, which reduced stress and made interactions with the baby possible. This communication appeared to be the locus of a supportive and fulfilling encounter between parents and caregivers that reinforced parents' perception of a developing bond.Conclusions: At birth and during the first weeks in the NICU, the creation of a bond between mothers and fathers and their premature baby is rooted in their relationship with the caregivers. Nurses' caring attitude and regular communication adapted to specific needs are perceived by parents as necessary preconditions for parents' interaction and development of a bond with their baby. These results might allow NICU staff to provide better support to parents and facilitate the emergence of a feeling of parenthood. © 2013 Guillaume et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Zana-Taieb E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Zana-Taieb E.,Groupe Hospitalier Cochin | Zana-Taieb E.,University of Paris Descartes | Butruille L.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in preterm infants increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by arrested alveolarization. We evaluated the impact of two different rat models (nitric oxide synthase inhibition or protein deprivation) of IUGR on alveolarization, before, during, and at the end of this postnatal process. We studied IUGR rat pups of dams fed either a low protein (LPD) or a normal diet throughout gestation and pups of dams treated by continuous infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or its diluent on the last four days of gestation. Morphometric parameters, alveolar surface (Svap), mean linear intercept (MLI) and radial alveolar count (RAC) and transcriptomic analysis were determined with special focus on genes involved in alveolarization. IUGR pups regained normal weight at day 21 in the two treated groups. In the LPD group, Svap, MLI and RAC were not different from those of controls at day 4, but were significantly decreased at day 21, indicating alveolarization arrest. In the L-NAME group, Svap and RAC were significantly decreased and MLI was increased at day 4 with complete correction at day 21. In the L-NAME model, several factors involved in alveolarization, VEGF, VEGF-R1 and -R2, MMP14, MMP16, FGFR3 and 4, FGF18 and 7, were significantly decreased at day 4 and/or day 10, while the various factors studied were not modified in the LPD group. These results demonstrate that only maternal protein deprivation leads to sustained impairment of alveolarization in rat pups, whereas L-NAME impairs lung development before alveolarization. Known growth factors involved in lung development do not seem to be involved in LPD-induced alveolarization disorders, raising the question of a possible programming of altered alveolarization. © 2013 Zana-Taieb et al.

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