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Gill S.,Toxicology Research Division | Kavanagh M.,Toxicology Research Division | Barker M.,Bureau of Chemical Safety | Weld M.,Premarket Toxicology Assessment Section | And 3 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2011

Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound formed during heat treatment for processing and preservation of various types of food. Rodent studies have previously shown that furan is a hepatocarcinogen. Those studies were conducted over a high dose range, which induced tumors at nearly 100% incidence at all doses. This ninety-day gavage study in mice was conducted to extend the dose to a lower range (0.0, 0.03, 0.12, 0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 mg/kg body weight [bw] per day) to identify a no-observed adverse effect level for hepatotoxicity and to characterize non-neoplastic effects, including those affecting clinical biochemistry, hematology, tissue morphology, and histopathology. The liver was the primary target organ with dose-dependent toxicity. Liver weights were increased at the 8.0 mg/kg bw dose in females only. Levels of the serum enzyme alanine transaminase, representative of liver damage, were increased three-fold at the highest dose. Histological changes in the liver were observed at 2.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw in both sexes. Although clinical parameters were also altered for the kidney, these differences were not accompanied by histological changes. Based on these clinical biochemical and histological changes, a no-observed adverse effect level of 0.12 mg/kg bw per day of furan in mice is suggested. © 2011 by The Author(s). Source


Gill S.,Toxicology Research Division | Bondy G.,Toxicology Research Division | Lefebvre D.E.,Toxicology Research Division | Becalski A.,Food Research Division | And 7 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2010

Rodent studies have shown that furan is a hepatocarcinogen. Previous studies conducted with high doses showed tumors at nearly 100% incidence at all doses. In this paper, a ninety-day gavage experiment conducted with lower doses (0.0, 0.03, 0.12, 0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 mg/kg bw) to identify a no-observed adverse effect level for hepatotoxicity and to characterize non-neoplastic effects including gross changes and histopathology, clinical biochemistry, hematology, and immunotoxicology is reported. As indicated by changes in serum biomarkers, increased liver weights and gross and histological lesions, the liver is the major target organ affected by furan. There were no changes in body weights, food consumption, or histology in other organs. Some of the serum electrolyte markers, including phosphorus, were altered. There was a significant increase in serum thyroxine and triidothyronine in males. This increase was not accompanied by histological thyroid changes. Immunophenotypic analysis showed that thymic lymphocyte maturation was altered in male rats. Although altered clinical biochemistry and hematological parameters were observed at a dose of > 0.5 mg/kg bw, mild histological lesions in the liver were observed at > 0.12 mg/kg bw. Based on this finding, a furan dose of 0.03 mg/kg bw was proposed as the no-observed adverse effect level for hepatic toxicity. Copyright © 2010 by The Author(s). Source

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