Verburg B.,Royal Womens Hospital |
Verburg B.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Fink A.M.,Royal Womens Hospital |
Fink A.M.,Royal Childrens Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2015
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the additional value of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment and management of fetuses with abnormal findings on ultrasound. Methods: A total of 257 patients who had fetal MRI following the ultrasound diagnosis of a fetal anomaly, or were at high risk, were included. The patients were grouped by referral category for fetal MRI. Fetal MRI was compared to ultrasound in the detection of anomalies, i.e. whether additional findings were identified and if this changed diagnosis, prognosis and management during pregnancy. Results: Ultrasound findings were confirmed on fetal MRI in 89% of the cases. Additional findings were seen with MRI in 28% of all patients. The diagnosis changed in 21% and the prognosis in 19% of the cases. Perinatal management changed in 8%. The antenatal findings were confirmed in all cases that had a postmortem examination following termination of pregnancy. In all the pregnancies that continued to delivery and for which the postnatal outcome is known, the findings correlated in 97% of the cases. Conclusion: Fetal MRI provided additional detection of fetal anomalies, leading to a change in diagnosis and prognosis in 19% of the cases. Neonatal and postmortem findings mostly confirmed the fetal MRI diagnosis, suggesting it to be a useful tool for clinical decision making in perinatal management. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hugo H.J.,St. Vincent's Institute |
Hugo H.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute |
Kokkinos M.I.,Pregnancy Research Center |
Kokkinos M.I.,University of Melbourne |
And 5 more authors.
Cells Tissues Organs | Year: 2011
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a feature of migratory cellular processes in all stages of life, including embryonic development and wound healing. Importantly, EMT features cluster with disease states such as chronic fibrosis and cancer. The dissolution of the E-cadherin-mediated adherens junction (AJ) is a key preliminary step in EMT and may occur early or late in the growing epithelial tumour. This is a first step for tumour cells towards stromal invasion, intravasation, extravasation and distant metastasis. The AJ may be inactivated in EMT by directed E-cadherin cleavage; however, it is increasingly evident that the majority of AJ changes are transcriptional and mediated by an expanding group of transcription factors acting directly or indirectly to repress E-cadherin expression. A review of the current literature has revealed that these factors may regulate each other in a hierarchical pattern where Snail1 (formerly Snail) and Snail2 (formerly Slug) are initially induced, leading to the activation of Zeb family members, TCF3, TCF4, Twist, Goosecoid and FOXC2. Within this general pathway, many inter-regulatory relationships have been defined which may be important in maintaining the EMT phenotype. This may be important given the short half-life of Snail1 protein. We have investigated these inter-regulatory relationships in the mesenchymal breast carcinoma cell line PMC42 (also known as PMC42ET) and its epithelial derivative, PMC42LA. This review also discusses several newly described regulators of E-cadherin repressors including oestrogen receptor-α and new discoveries in hypoxia- and growth factor-induced EMT. Finally, we evaluated how these findings may influence approaches to current cancer treatment. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.