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Bernardo Larroudé, Argentina

Peluso L.,National University of La Plata | Peluso L.,CONICET | Abelando M.,Prefectura Naval Argentina | Apartin C.D.,National University of La Plata | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013

Paraná River, the six largest in the world, is receptor of pollution loads from tributaries traversing urban and industrialized areas, and extensive agriculture, particularly in its middle and low stretch along the Argentinean sector, where most of the productive activities of the country develop. Within the frame of monitoring surveys, the quality of bottom sediments from distal positions of twenty tributaries and three of the main course was evaluated. The assessment covered testing lethal and sublethal effects with the Hyalella curvispina based toxicity test, a benthic macrofauna survey and physicochemical variables of sediment matrix composition. A multivariate statistical analysis approach permitted integrating the obtained data from the different survey lines of evidence, explaining potential causes of the measured biological effects. The main perturbations detected were associated to tributaries in the middle sector of the basin, where anoxic conditions with high sulfide contents prevail mostly related to organic matter inputs of diverse combined activities, where sediments induce high lethality, and a consequent strong reduction of the benthic community population and diversity. The integrated survey approach proved being a robust tool in the assessment of causative-adverse effects relationships. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Ouahid Y.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Zaccaro M.C.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Vegetal | Zulpa G.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Vegetal | Storni M.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Vegetal | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Microcystis is one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria genera in diverse ecosystems. More than 80% of its strains are toxic, mainly due to their ability to produce metabolites known as microcystins (MC). Here we report on a M. aeruginosa bloom that appeared in the summer of 2001 at a site of the Río de la Plata, within the city of Buenos Aires. The symptoms in mice indicated that the bloom was hepatotoxic. LC-PDA analysis revealed a similar high concentration (0.9-1 mg g -1 d w) of just one MC in the bloom biomass during the 3-month study period. During this period most of the MC (ca. 98 %) was found intracellularly, and the content remained almost the same. The molecular mass of the bloom MC was 1036 Da, as deduced from LC-ESI-MS data. Fragment ion analysis by LC-IT-MS-MS allowed identifying 6 out of the 7 amino acids, as well as their position in the molecule. The molecular mass of the unidentified amino acid residue was 155 Da. According to the data obtained, the MC under study was MC-XR, X representing the unidentified amino acid. This is the first report both on the characterisation of MCs in an urban site of the Río de la Plata waters, and on an Argentinean bloom exhibiting only one MC variant. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Poma H.R.,National University of Salta | Rajal V.B.,National University of Salta | Rajal V.B.,University of California at Davis | Blanco Fernandez M.D.,University of Buenos Aires | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Enteric viruses monitoring in surface waters requires the concentration of viruses before detection assays. The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods in terms of recovery efficiencies of bacteriophage PP7 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, measured by real-time PCR, using it as a viral control process in water analysis. Different nucleic acid extraction methods (silica-guanidinium thiocyanate, a commercial kit (Qiagen Viral RNA Kit) and phenol-chloroform with alcohol precipitation) exhibited very low recovery efficiencies (0.08-4.18 %), being the most efficient the commercial kit used for subsequent experiments. To evaluate the efficiency of three concentration methods, PBS (as model for clean water) and water samples from rivers were seeded to reach high (HC, 10 6 pfu ml-1) and low concentrations (LC, 104 pfu ml-1) of PP7. Tangential ultrafiltration proved to be more efficient (50.36 ± 12.91, 17.21 ± 9.22 and 12.58 ± 2.35 % for HC in PBS and two river samples, respectively) than adsorption-elution with negatively charged membranes (1.00 ± 1.34, 2.79 ± 2.62 and 0.05 ± 0.08 % for HC in PBS and two river samples, respectively) and polyethylene glycol precipitation (15.95 ± 7.43, 4.01 ± 1.12 and 3.91 ± 0.54 %, for HC in PBS and two river samples, respectively), being 3.2-50.4 times more efficient than the others for PBS and 2.7-252 times for river samples. Efficiencies also depended on the initial virus concentration and aqueous matrixes composition. In consequence, the incorporation of an internal standard like PP7 along the process is useful as a control of the water concentration procedure, the nucleic acid extraction, the presence of inhibitors and the variability of the recovery among replicas, and for the calculation of the sample limit of detection. Thus, the use of a process control, as presented here, is crucial for the accurate quantification of viral contamination. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ronco A.E.,National University of La Plata | Ronco A.E.,CONICET | Marino D.J.G.,National University of La Plata | Marino D.J.G.,CONICET | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

The Paraná River, the sixth largest in the world, is the receptor of pollution loads from tributaries traversing urban and industrialized areas plus agricultural expanses, particularly so in the river’s middle and lower reaches along the Argentine sector. In the present study, we analyzed and discussed the main water quality parameters, sediment compositions, and content of the herbicide glyphosate plus its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water and sediments. Samples were obtained from distal positions in the principal tributaries of the Paraná and the main watercourse during surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012 to monitor the basin. Only 15 % of the water samples contained detectable concentrations of glyphosate at an average concentration of 0.60 μg/L, while no detectable levels of AMPA were observed. The herbicide and metabolite were primarily present in sediments of the middle and lower stretch’s tributaries, there occurring at a respective average of 37 and 17 % in samples. The mean detectable concentrations measured were 742 and 521 μg/kg at mean, maximum, and minimum glyphosate/AMPA ratios of 2.76, 7.80, and 0.06, respectively. The detection of both compounds was correlated with the presence of sulfides and copper in the sediment matrix. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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