Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology


Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology

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News Article | May 25, 2017

FRAMINGHAM, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--SCIEX, a global leader in life science analytical technologies, has announced that the MSB Strategic Planning Committee has selected Dr. Shigeru Terabe, Professor Emeritus of the University of Hyogo in Kamigori, Hyogo, Japan, as the recipient of the Arnold O. Beckman Medal and Award for Outstanding Scientific Achievements in the Field of Electro-driven Separation Techniques. The Medal Ceremony was presented on Tuesday, March 28th as part of a Special Award Plenary Session at the 33rd International Symposium on Microscale Bioseparations (MSB 2017). The Arnold O. Beckman award is given to an individual for remarkable career achievements, with particular consideration being given to the development of new methods, techniques and high-impact applications in the field of electro-driven separations. The award comprises a Medal, a Diploma and a Monetary Prize. Professor Terabe earned his undergraduate, masters and doctoral degrees from Kyoto University, Japan in 1963, 1965 and 1973, respectively. Professor Terabe began is career at the Shionogi & Company Ltd, where he was a research chemist. Later, he joined Arizona State University, where he was a research associate before returning to Kyoto University, Japan to become an assistant professor. In 1990, he was appointed to the Faculty at Himeji Institute of Technology, Kamigori, Hyogo, Japan and has since been engaged in the practice of analytical chemistry. After retiring, Professor Terabe served as a Research Supervisor of the program “Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology” funded by the Japanese government from 2004–2010. In his role, Professor Terabe assisted 40 top young analytical scientists by funding ca. 5 million USD per year for the project, “Structure Function and Measurement Analysis.” Professor Terabe has been a driving force in understanding the fundamentals of capillary electrophoresis including the introduction of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography and a myriad of its applications, as well as the development of sweeping, a “stacking” approach for neutral analytes. His 250 original research publications have been cited more than 15,000 times altogether ranking him in the top 200 among all chemists. Professor Terabe has been awarded the ACS Award in Chromatography in 2004, CASSS Award in 2007, and the Chemical Society of Japan Award in 2008 in recognition of his contributions to analytical chemistry. He served as an Editor of Journal of Chromatography for 15 years and in 2011 he was Chairman of the IUPAC International Congress on Analytical Sciences. “This annual Medal and Award sponsored by SCIEX recognizes the achievements of those that have made a momentous impact on capillary electrophoresis,” said Jeff Chapman, Sr. Director, SCIEX. “Professor Terabe’s invention of micellar electrokinetic chromatography has inspired many scientists, both utilizing and building upon this fundamental methodology.” “I am humbled to be the recipient of the prestigious Arnold O. Beckman award, a notable honor that has recognized distinguished colleagues that have impacted diverse scientific and technical disciplines,” said Dr. Shigeru Terabe, Professor Emeritus of the University of Hyogo in Kamigori, Hyogo, Japan. “Dr. Beckman’s achievements have inspired me and I would like to express my gratitude to MSB for this esteemed award.” Learn more about SCIEX and SCIEX Capillary Electrophoresis Solutions SCIEX helps to improve the world we live in by enabling scientists and laboratory analysts to find answers to the complex analytical challenges they face. The company's global leadership and world-class service and support in the capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry industry have made it a trusted partner to thousands of the scientists and lab analysts worldwide who are focused on basic research, drug discovery and development, food and environmental testing, forensics and clinical research. With over 40 years of proven innovation, SCIEX excels by listening to and understanding the ever-evolving needs of its customers to develop reliable, sensitive and intuitive solutions that continue to redefine what is achievable in routine and complex analysis. For more information, please visit For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. RUO-MKT-12-5561-A © 2017 AB Sciex. The trademarks mentioned herein are the property of the AB Sciex Pte. Ltd. or their respective owners. AB Sciex™ is being used under license.

Omori Y.,Osaka Bioscience Institute | Omori Y.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Omori Y.,Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology | Araki F.,Osaka Bioscience Institute | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Dystroglycan (DG) is akey component of the dystrophin- glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the neuromuscular junction postsynapse. In the mouse retina, the DGC is localized at the presynapse of photoreceptor cells, however, the function of presynaptic DGC is poorly understood. Here, we developed and analyzed retinal photoreceptor-specific DG conditional knock-out (DG CKO) mice. We found that the DG CKO retina showed a reduced amplitude and a prolonged implicit time of the ERG b-wave. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that bipolar dendrite invagination into the photoreceptor terminus is perturbed in the DG CKO retina. In the DG CKO retina, pikachurin, a DG ligand in the retina, is markedly decreased at photoreceptor synapses. Interestingly, in the Pikachurin retina, the DG signal at the ribbon synaptic terminus was severely reduced, suggesting that pikachurin is required for the presynaptic accumulation of DG at the photoreceptor synaptic terminus, and conversely DG is required for pikachurin accumulation. Furthermore, we found that overexpres-sion of pikachurin induces formation and clustering of a DG-pikachurin complex on the cell surface. The Laminin G repeats of pikachurin, which are critical for its oligomerization and interaction with DG, were essential for the clustering of the DG-pikachurin complex as well. These results suggest that oligomerization of pikachurin and its interaction with DG causes DG assembly on the synapse surface of the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Our results reveal that the presynaptic interaction of pikachurin with DG at photoreceptor terminals is essential for both the formation of proper photoreceptor ribbon synaptic structures and normal retinal electrophysiology. © 2012 the authors.

Budisantoso T.,National Institute for Physiological science | Budisantoso T.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Matsui K.,National Institute for Physiological science | Matsui K.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Visual information must be relayed through the lateral geniculate nucleus before it reaches the visual cortex. However, not all spikes created in the retina lead to postsynaptic spikes and properties of the retinogeniculate synapse contribute to this filtering. To understand the mechanisms underlying this filtering process, we conducted electrophysiology to assess the properties of signal transmission in the Long-Evans rat. We also performed SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling to quantify the receptor and transporter distribution, as well as EM reconstruction to describe the 3D structure. To analyze the impact of transmitter diffusion on the activity of the receptors, simulations were integrated. We identified that a large contributor to the filtering is the marked paired-pulse depression at this synapse, which was intensified by the morphological characteristics of the contacts. The broad presynaptic and postsynaptic contact area restricts transmitter diffusion two dimensionally. Additionally, the presence of multiple closely arranged release sites invites intersynaptic spillover, which causes desensitization of AMPA receptors. The presence of AMPA receptors that slowly recover from desensitization along with the high presynaptic release probability and multivesicular release at each synapse also contribute to the depression. These features contrast with many other synapses where spatiotemporal spread of transmitter is limited by rapid transmitter clearance allowing synapses to operate more independently. We propose that the micrometer-order structure can ultimately affect the visual information processing. © 2012 the authors.

Takahashi T.,Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research | Ohnishi H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Ohnishi H.,Kyoto University | Sugiura Y.,Keio University | And 13 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2014

Non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) is predicted to function as a local cell signaling molecule. However, the physiological significance of the synthesis of non-neuronal ACh in the intestine remains unclear. Here, experiments using crypt-villus organoids that lack nerve and immune cells in culture led us to suggest that endogenous ACh is synthesized in the intestinal epithelium to evoke growth and differentiation of the organoids through activation of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). The extracts of the cultured organoids showed a noticeable capacity for ACh synthesis that was sensitive to a potent inhibitor of choline acetyltransferase. Imaging MS revealed endogenous ACh localized in the epithelial layer in mouse small intestinal epithelium in vivo, suggesting that there are non-neuronal resources of ACh. Treatment of organoids with carbachol downregulated the growth of organoids and the expression of marker genes for epithelial cells. On the other hand, antagonists for mAChRs enhanced the growth and differentiation of organoids, indicating the involvement of mAChRs in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5-positive stem cells. Collectively, our data provide evidence that endogenous ACh released from intestinal epithelium maintains homeostasis of intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation via mAChRs in mice. © 2014 FEBS.

Motoyoshi K.,Tohoku University | Tajima A.,Tohoku University | Higuchi T.,Tohoku University | Yabu H.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Soft Matter | Year: 2010

This paper reports static and dynamic control of the phase separation structures of polymer blended nanoparticles. The phase separated nanoparticles were prepared from various combinations of polymers by evaporating good solvents from the polymer blended solutions after adding poor solvents into the solutions. Transmission electron microscope observation of the nanoparticles shows that two types of phase separation structures were formed in them. One is Janus type structure and another is core-shell type structure. When the difference of the Flory-Huggins solubility parameter (δ) between two blended polymers is large, one polymer having a higher δ value encapsulated another polymer. As a result, a core-shell type structure is formed. On the other hand, when the difference of δ value is small, both moieties of polymer are exposed to the poor solvent, and then, a Janus structure is formed. Moreover, when the thermoresponsive polymer was blended with a hydrophobic polymer, a Janus type or core-shell structure was formed by changing the preparation temperature. The core-shell type structure was transformed to a Janus type structure by heating the nanoparticles. This control and transformation of structures of nanoparticles can be applied to nano-sensing devices, switching devices and drug delivery systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Yamamoto H.M.,Japan Institute for Molecular Science | Yamamoto H.M.,RIKEN | Yamamoto H.M.,Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology | Nakano M.,Tohoku University | And 8 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

In state-of-the-art silicon devices, mobility of the carrier is enhanced by the lattice strain from the back substrate. Such an extra control of device performance is significant in realizing high-performance computing and should be valid for electric-field-induced superconducting (SC) devices, too. However, so far, the carrier density is the sole parameter for field-induced SC interfaces. Here we show an active organic SC field-effect transistor whose lattice is modulated by the strain from the substrate. The soft organic lattice allows tuning of the strain by a choice of the back substrate to make an induced SC state accessible at low temperature with a paraelectric solid gate. An active three-terminal Josephson junction device thus realized is useful both in advanced computing and in elucidating a direct connection between filling-controlled and bandwidth-controlled SC phases in correlated materials. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

News Article | March 18, 2016

« DOE announces $3M for 2nd round of HPC4Mfg for industry access to high performance computing | Main | IEEE publishes three updated standards to support connected vehicle development » Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues in Japan, have demonstrated the first electrochemical reaction based on hydride ions in an oxide-based solid-state cell for potential next-generation batteries. A paper on their work is published in the journal Science. Ionic transport has been studied extensively over the years for energy devices such as fuel cells and batteries using Li+, H+, Ag+, Cu+, F–, and O2– as ionic charge carriers. The conduction of hydride ions, H–, is also attractive, the team notes in their paper. In contrast to proton conduction that takes place widely in oxides and other systems, pure H– conduction has been verified only for a few hydrides of alkaline earth metals such as BaH . Unfortunately, utilization of the hydrides is difficult because of their structural inflexibility, which makes control of the lattice structure to create smooth transport pathways and control of the conducting hydride ion content difficult. Using an oxyhydride solid state cell, the researchers have now demonstrated pure H- conduction in an oxide for the first time. Metal hydrides tend to have an inflexible lattice, which makes H– transport difficult, so the researchers turned to oxyhydrides where oxygen and hydrogen share the same lattice sites. Another challenge is the high electron-donating properties of H-, which means that the electrons will dissociate from the H- to produce protons and electrons, giving rise to electron rather than hydride-ion transport. As a result the team sought a system containing cations that were more electron-donating than the H-. Genki Kobayashi and Ryoji Kanno from Tokyo Tech collaborated with colleagues from the Institute for Molecular Science, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kyoto University and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. They examined how the structure of their oxyhydride compounds changed with composition and synthesis conditions. They also studied characteristics of the electronic structure that suggested an ionic Li-H bond in the compound—the existence of H– in the oxides. They then used La LiHO in an orthorhombic structural phase (o-La LiHO ) as an electrolyte in a cell with titanium anode and titanium hydride cathodes. Phase changes at the electrodes by the discharge were consistent with a Ti-H phase diagram suggesting hydride-ion transport. In a Perspective on the work by Kobayashi et al., published in the same issue of Science, Shu Yamaguchi of The University of Tokyo observed that: Kobayashi et al. report a material with pure H− conductivity (and yet an electronic insulator) in an oxyhydride system, which has been a “last frontier” in solid state ionics. … The result … is just the beginning of a new materials science of H− conductivity in oxyhydride systems that will require further elaboration of the underlying mechanisms, as well as potential applications of the extremely reducing H− ion in chemical synthesis. A drawback of the current material is its chemical reactivity in oxidizing atmospheres, but this disadvantage may be overcome by various techniques, like surface protection coatings. These explorations of H− conductors now leave the question of what will be the next last frontier for solid state ionics. This research was supported by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Okuyama-Uchimura F.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Komai S.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Komai S.,Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology | Komai S.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Perception | Year: 2016

In contrast to the previously held notion that mice have a weak visual system, it is now generally accepted that mice can perceive rather complicated figures in various contexts such as in cognitive experiments and in social settings. Here, we show that mice could even be capable of perceiving a visual illusion—subjective contours. This illusion requires the visual system to compensate for a lack of visual information in compressed 2D images on the retina. In this experiment, we trained mice to respond appropriately to a rectangle-shaped rewarded figure of specific orientation in a two-choice visual discrimination task with a touchscreen monitor. In Transfer Test 1, mice could discriminate illusory rectangle-shaped figures significantly as compared with a figure, which did not induce illusory figures. In Transfer Test 2, the choice rate of targets decreased with imperfect illusory figures, which produced weak perception of rotated or deficient inducers. Moreover, in Transfer Test 3, mice could not discriminate the low-resolution illusory figure, which also induced weak perception. These results demonstrated the possibility that mice might be useful for investigating fundamental properties of the neural visual system. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Shichita T.,Keio University | Shichita T.,Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology | Sakaguchi R.,Keio University | Sakaguchi R.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2012

Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this review, we focus on the post-ischemic inflammation triggered by infiltrating immune cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes. Brain ischemia is a sterile organ, but injury-induced inflammation is mostly dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 andTLR4. Some endogenousTLR ligands, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin family proteins, in particular, are implicated in the activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in infiltrating macrophages. Following macrophage activation, T lymphocytes infiltrate the ischemic brain and regulate the delayed phase inflammation. IL17-producing γδT lymphocytes induced by IL-23 from macrophages promote ischemic brain injury, whereas regulatory T lymphocytes suppress the function of inflammatory mediators. A deeper understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms of infiltrating immune cells may lead to the development of novel neuroprotective therapies. © 2012 Shichita, Sakaguchi, Suzuki and Yoshimura.

Yamada T.,University of Tokyo | Tani Y.,University of Tokyo | Nakanishi H.,University of Tokyo | Taguchi R.,University of Tokyo | And 5 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2011

Acute inflammation in healthy individuals is self-limiting and has an active termination program. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest. In murine zymosan-induced peritonitis, we found that eosinophils are recruited to the inflamed loci during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. In vivo depletion of eosinophils caused a resolution deficit, namely impaired lymphatic drainage with reduced appearance of phagocytes carrying engulfed zymosan in the draining lymph node, and sustained numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in inflamed tissues. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based lipidomics of the resolving exudates revealed that locally activated eosinophils in the resolution phase produced proresolving mediators, including protectin D1 (PD1) from docosa-hexaenoic acid. The resolution deficit caused by eosinophil depletion was rescued by eosinophil restoration or the administration of PD1. Eosinophils deficient in 12/15-lipoxygenase could not rescue the resolution phenotype. The present results indicate that mouse eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators, including PD1, have a role in promoting the resolution of acute inflammation, expanding the roles of eosinophils in host defense and resolution. © FASEB.

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