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Klamroth R.,Center for Vascular Medicine | Groner A.,Preclinical Research and Development | Simon T.L.,Plasma Research and Development CSL Plasma
Transfusion | Year: 2014

Pathogen safety is crucial for plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates used in the treatment of bleeding disorders. Plasma, the starting material for these products, is collected by plasmapheresis (source plasma) or derived from whole blood donations (recovered plasma). The primary measures regarding pathogen safety are selection of healthy donors donating in centers with appropriate epidemiologic data for the main blood-transmissible viruses, screening donations for the absence of relevant infectious blood-borne viruses, and release of plasma pools for further processing only if they are nonreactive for serologic markers and nucleic acids for these viruses. Despite this testing, pathogen inactivation and/or removal during the manufacturing process of plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates is required to ensure prevention of transmission of infectious agents. Historically, hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus have posed the greatest threat to patients receiving plasma-derived therapy for treatment of hemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Over the past 30 years, dedicated virus inactivation and removal steps have been integrated into factor concentrate production processes, essentially eliminating transmission of these viruses. Manufacturing steps used in the purification of factor concentrates have also proved to be successful in reducing potential prion infectivity. In this review, current techniques for inactivation and removal of pathogens from factor concentrates are discussed. Ideally, production processes should involve a combination of complementary steps for pathogen inactivation and/or removal to ensure product safety. Finally, potential batch-to-batch contamination is avoided by stringent cleaning and sanitization methods as part of the manufacturing process. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks. Source

Russell A.J.,Preclinical Research and Development | Hartman J.J.,Preclinical Research and Development | Hinken A.C.,Preclinical Research and Development | Muci A.R.,Preclinical Research and Development | And 22 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2012

Limited neural input results in muscle weakness in neuromuscular disease because of a reduction in the density of muscle innervation, the rate of neuromuscular junction activation or the efficiency of synaptic transmission. We developed a small-molecule fast-skeletal-troponin activator, CK-2017357, as a means to increase muscle strength by amplifying the response of muscle when neural input is otherwise diminished secondary to neuromuscular disease. Binding selectively to the fast-skeletal-troponin complex, CK-2017357 slows the rate of calcium release from troponin C and sensitizes muscle to calcium. As a consequence, the force-calcium relationship of muscle fibers shifts leftwards, as does the force-frequency relationship of a nerve-muscle pair, so that CK-2017357 increases the production of muscle force in situ at sub-maximal nerve stimulation rates. Notably, we show that sensitization of the fast-skeletal-troponin complex to calcium improves muscle force and grip strength immediately after administration of single doses of CK-2017357 in a model of the neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis. Troponin activation may provide a new therapeutic approach to improve physical activity in diseases where neuromuscular function is compromised. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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