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Ivano Frankivsk, Ukraine

Semchyshyn H.M.,Precarpathian University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

There is compelling evidence that long-term intake of excessive fructose can have deleterious side effects in different experimental models. However, the role of fructose in vivo remains controversial, since acute temporary application of fructose is found to protect yeast as well as animal tissues against exogenous oxidative stress. This review suggests the involvement of reactive carbonyl and oxygen species in both the cytotoxic and defensive effects of fructose. Potential mechanisms of the generation of reactive species by fructose in the nonenzymatic reactions, their implication in the detrimental and protective effects of fructose are discussed. © 2013 H. M. Semchyshyn.

Semchyshyn H.M.,Precarpathian University
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Reactive carbonyls are widespread species in living organisms and mainly known for their damaging effects. The most abundant reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are derived from oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Chemical modification of proteins, nucleic acids, and aminophospholipids by RCS results in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. In addition to their direct toxicity, modification of biomolecules by RCS gives rise to a multitude of adducts and cross links that are increasingly implicated in aging and pathology of a wide range of human diseases. Understanding of the relationship between metabolism of RCS and the development of pathological disorders and diseases may help to develop effective approaches to prevent a number of disorders and diseases. On the other hand, constant persistence of RCS in cells suggests that they perform some useful role in living organisms. The most beneficial effects of RCS are their establishment as regulators of cell signal transduction and gene expression. Since RCS can modulate different biological processes, new tools are required to decipher the precise mechanisms underlying dual effects of RCS. © 2014 Halyna M. Semchyshyn.

Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an unenviable part of aerobic life. Their steady-state concentration is a balance between production and elimination providing certain steady-state ROS level. The dynamic equilibrium can be disturbed leading to enhanced ROS level and damage to cellular constituents which is called " oxidative stress" This review describes the general processes responsible for ROS generation in aquatic animals and critically analyses used markers for identification of oxidative stress. Changes in temperature, oxygen levels and salinity can cause the stress in natural and artificial conditions via induction of disbalance between ROS production and elimination. Human borne pollutants can also enhance ROS level in hydrobionts. The role of transition metal ions, such as copper, chromium, mercury and arsenic, and pesticides, namely insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides along with oil products in induction of oxidative stress is highlighted. Last years the research in biology of free radicals was refocused from only descriptive works to molecular mechanisms with particular interest to ones enhancing tolerance. The function of some transcription regulators (Keap1-Nrf2 and HIF-1α) in coordination of organisms' response to oxidative stress is discussed. The future directions in the field are related with more accurate description of oxidative stress, the identification of its general characteristics and mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the stress have been also discussed. The last part marks some perspectives in the study of oxidative stress in hydrobionts, which, in addition to classic use, became more and more popular to address general biological questions such as development, aging and pathologies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
Biochemistry (Moscow) | Year: 2010

The mechanisms of production and elimination of reactive oxygen species in the cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are analyzed. Coordinative role of special regulatory proteins including Yap1p, Msn2/4p, and Skn7p (Pos9p) in regulation of defense mechanisms in S. cerevisiae is described. A special section is devoted to two other well-studied species from the point of view of oxidative stress - Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans. Some examples demonstrating the use of yeast for investigation of apoptosis, aging, and some human diseases are given in the conclusion part. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.

Townsend D.M.,Medical University of South Carolina | Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University | Cooper A.J.L.,New York Medical College
Advances in Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Glutathionylation is generally a reversible posttranslational modification that occurs to cysteine residues that have been exposed to reactive oxygen species (P-SSG). This cyclical process can regulate various clusters of proteins, including those involved in critical cellular signaling functions. However, certain conditions can favor the formation of dehydroamino acids, such as 2,3-didehydroalanine (2,3-dehydroalanine, DHA) and 2,3-didehydrobutyrine (2,3-dehydrobutyrine), which can act as Michael acceptors. In turn, these can form Michael adducts with glutathione (GSH), resulting in the formation of a stable thioether conjugate, an irreversible process referred to as nonreducible glutathionylation. This is predicted to be prevalent in nature, particularly in more slowly turning over proteins. Such nonreducible glutathionylation can be distinguished from the more facile cycling signaling processes and is predicted to be of gerontological, toxicological, pharmacological, and oncological relevance. Here, we compare reversible and irreversible glutathionylation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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