Ivano Frankivsk, Ukraine

Precarpathian University

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Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2014

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) initially considered as only damaging agents in living organisms further were found to play positive roles also. This paper describes ROS homeostasis, principles of their investigation and technical approaches to investigate ROS-related processes. Especial attention is paid to complications related to experimental documentation of these processes, their diversity, spatiotemporal distribution, relationships with physiological state of the organisms. Imbalance between ROS generation and elimination in favor of the first with certain consequences for cell physiology has been called "oxidative stress". Although almost 30 years passed since the first definition of oxidative stress was introduced by Helmut Sies, to date we have no accepted classification of oxidative stress. In order to fill up this gape here classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed. Due to that oxidative stress may be classified as basal oxidative stress (BOS), low intensity oxidative stress (LOS), intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS), and high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). Another classification of potential interest may differentiate three categories such as mild oxidative stress (MOS), temperate oxidative stress (TOS), and finally severe (strong) oxidative stress (SOS). Perspective directions of investigations in the field include development of sophisticated classification of oxidative stresses, accurate identification of cellular ROS targets and their arranged responses to ROS influence, real in situ functions and operation of so-called "antioxidants", intracellular spatiotemporal distribution and effects of ROS, deciphering of molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular response to ROS attacks, and ROS involvement in realization of normal cellular functions in cellular homeostasis. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
Dose-Response | Year: 2014

The relationship between the dose of an effector and the biological response frequently is not described by a linear function and, moreover, in some cases the doseresponse relationship may change from positive/adverse to adverse/positive with increasing dose. This complicated relationship is called "hormesis". This paper provides a short analysis of the concept along with a description of used approaches to characterize hormetic relationships. The whole hormetic curve can be divided into three zones: I - a lag-zone where no changes are observed with increasing dose; II - a zone where beneficial/adverse effects are observed, and III - a zone where the effects are opposite to those seen in zone II. Some approaches are proposed to analyze the molecular components involved in the development of the hormetic character of dose-response relationships with the use of specific genetic lines or inhibitors of regulatory pathways. The discussion is then extended to suggest a new parameter (half-width of the hormetic curve at zone II) for quantitative characterization of the hormetic curve. The problems limiting progress in the development of the hormesis concept such as low reproducibility and predictability may be solved, at least partly, by deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormetic dose-effect relationship. © 2014 University of Massachusetts.


Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an unenviable part of aerobic life. Their steady-state concentration is a balance between production and elimination providing certain steady-state ROS level. The dynamic equilibrium can be disturbed leading to enhanced ROS level and damage to cellular constituents which is called " oxidative stress" This review describes the general processes responsible for ROS generation in aquatic animals and critically analyses used markers for identification of oxidative stress. Changes in temperature, oxygen levels and salinity can cause the stress in natural and artificial conditions via induction of disbalance between ROS production and elimination. Human borne pollutants can also enhance ROS level in hydrobionts. The role of transition metal ions, such as copper, chromium, mercury and arsenic, and pesticides, namely insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides along with oil products in induction of oxidative stress is highlighted. Last years the research in biology of free radicals was refocused from only descriptive works to molecular mechanisms with particular interest to ones enhancing tolerance. The function of some transcription regulators (Keap1-Nrf2 and HIF-1α) in coordination of organisms' response to oxidative stress is discussed. The future directions in the field are related with more accurate description of oxidative stress, the identification of its general characteristics and mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the stress have been also discussed. The last part marks some perspectives in the study of oxidative stress in hydrobionts, which, in addition to classic use, became more and more popular to address general biological questions such as development, aging and pathologies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
Biochemistry (Moscow) | Year: 2010

The mechanisms of production and elimination of reactive oxygen species in the cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are analyzed. Coordinative role of special regulatory proteins including Yap1p, Msn2/4p, and Skn7p (Pos9p) in regulation of defense mechanisms in S. cerevisiae is described. A special section is devoted to two other well-studied species from the point of view of oxidative stress - Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans. Some examples demonstrating the use of yeast for investigation of apoptosis, aging, and some human diseases are given in the conclusion part. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.


Semchyshyn H.M.,Precarpathian University
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Reactive carbonyls are widespread species in living organisms and mainly known for their damaging effects. The most abundant reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are derived from oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Chemical modification of proteins, nucleic acids, and aminophospholipids by RCS results in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. In addition to their direct toxicity, modification of biomolecules by RCS gives rise to a multitude of adducts and cross links that are increasingly implicated in aging and pathology of a wide range of human diseases. Understanding of the relationship between metabolism of RCS and the development of pathological disorders and diseases may help to develop effective approaches to prevent a number of disorders and diseases. On the other hand, constant persistence of RCS in cells suggests that they perform some useful role in living organisms. The most beneficial effects of RCS are their establishment as regulators of cell signal transduction and gene expression. Since RCS can modulate different biological processes, new tools are required to decipher the precise mechanisms underlying dual effects of RCS. © 2014 Halyna M. Semchyshyn.


Semchyshyn H.M.,Precarpathian University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

There is compelling evidence that long-term intake of excessive fructose can have deleterious side effects in different experimental models. However, the role of fructose in vivo remains controversial, since acute temporary application of fructose is found to protect yeast as well as animal tissues against exogenous oxidative stress. This review suggests the involvement of reactive carbonyl and oxygen species in both the cytotoxic and defensive effects of fructose. Potential mechanisms of the generation of reactive species by fructose in the nonenzymatic reactions, their implication in the detrimental and protective effects of fructose are discussed. © 2013 H. M. Semchyshyn.


Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2014

In living organisms production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is counterbalanced by their elimination and/or prevention of formation which in concert can typically maintain a steadystate (stationary) ROS level. However, this balance may be disturbed and lead to elevated ROS levels called oxidative stress. To our best knowledge, there is no broadly acceptable system of classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity due to which proposed here system may be helpful for interpretation of experimental data. Oxidative stress field is the hot topic in biology and, to date, many details related to ROS-induced damage to cellular components, ROS-based signaling, cellular responses and adaptation have been disclosed. However, it is common situation when researchers experience substantial difficulties in the correct interpretation of oxidative stress development especially when there is a need to characterize its intensity. Careful selection of specific biomarkers (ROS-modified targets) and some system may be helpful here. A classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed here. According to this classification there are four zones of function in the relationship between “Dose/concentration of inducer” and the measured “Endpoint”: I-basal oxidative stress (BOS); II-low intensity oxidative stress (LOS); III-intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS); IV-high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). The proposed classification will be helpful to describe experimental data where oxidative stress is induced and systematize it based on its intensity, but further studies will be in need to clear discriminate between stress of different intensity. © 2014, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All rights Reserved.


Lushchak V.I.,Precarpathian University
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously produced and eliminated by living organisms normally maintaining ROS at certain steady-state levels. Under some circumstances, the balance between ROS generation and elimination is disturbed leading to enhanced ROS level called "oxidative stress". The primary goal of this review is to characterize two principal mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress - regulation of membrane permeability and antioxidant potential. The ancillary goals of this work are to describe up to date knowledge on the regulation of the previously mentioned mechanisms and to identify areas of prospective research and emerging directions in investigation of adaptation to oxidative stress. The ubiquity for challenges leading to oxidative stress development calls for identification of common mechanisms. They are cysteine residues and [Fe,S]-clusters of specific regulatory proteins. The latter mechanism is realized via SoxR bacterial protein, whereas the former mechanism is involved in operation of bacterial OxyR regulon, yeast H 2O2-stimulon, plant NPR1/TGA and Rap2.4a systems, and animal Keap1/Nrf2, NF-κB and AP-1, and others. Although hundreds of studies have been carried out in the field with different taxa, the comparative analysis of adaptive response is quite incomplete and therefore, this work aims to cover a plethora of phylogenetic groups to delineate common mechanisms. In addition, this article raises some questions to be elucidated and points out future directions of this research. The comparative approach is used to shed light on fundamental principles and mechanisms of regulation of antioxidant systems. The idea is to provide starting points from which we can develop novel tools and hypothesis to facilitate meaningful investigations in the physiology and biochemistry of organismic response to oxidative stress. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


The structure of CuCl2, CuCl catalyst active centres on the surface of γ-Al 2O 3 has been investigated on the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis. The influence of the catalyst structure on the mechanism of ethylene oxidative chlorination has been determined. Using mass spectroscopy the difference in the structure of active centers and the mechanism of the deposited and impregnated types of CuCl 2, CuCl/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts in the process of ethylene oxidative chlorination into 1,2-dichlorethane has been studied. © Kurta S., 2012.


Semchyshyn H.M.,Precarpathian University
International Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

The biphasic-dose response of microorganisms to hydrogen peroxide is a phenomenon of particular interest in hormesis research. In different animal models, the dose-response curve for ethanol is also nonlinear showing an inhibitory effect at high doses but a stimulatory effect at low doses. In this study, we observed the hormetic-dose response to ethanol in budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Cross-protection is a phenomenon in which exposure to mild stress results in the acquisition of cellular resistance to lethal stress induced by different factors. Since both hydrogen peroxide and ethanol at low concentrations were found to stimulate yeast colony growth, we evaluated the role of one substance in cell cross-adaptation to the other substance as well as some weak organic acid preservatives. This study demonstrates that, unlike ethanol, hydrogen peroxide at hormetic concentrations causes cross-resistance of S. cerevisiae to different stresses. The regulatory protein Yap1 plays an important role in the hormetic effects by low concentrations of either hydrogen peroxide or ethanol, and it is involved in the yeast cross-adaptation by low sublethal doses of hydrogen peroxide. © 2014 Halyna M. Semchyshyn.

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