Sepman A.V.,University of Groningen |
Toro V.V.,Prayas Energy Group |
Mokhov A.V.,University of Groningen |
Levinsky H.B.,University of Groningen
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2013
The procedure of deriving flame temperature and major species concentrations by fitting measured Raman spectra in hydrocarbon flames is described. The approach simplifies the calibration procedure to determine temperature and major species concentrations from the measured Raman spectra. The calculations of the Raman spectra are performed using data online positions and cross sections from the current literature. Utilizing all spectral information for deriving temperature and major species concentrations substantially increases accuracy, while interferences can easily be detected and filtered out of the measured spectrum. Temperatures from the separate Raman spectra of N2, H2O, O2, CO2 and CO are systematically compared with each other over the span of more than 1,700 K. The agreement between them is generally better than 100 K. The developed procedure also allows us to determine the mole fractions of the major species with absolute accuracy of ±10 %. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Hultman N.E.,University of Maryland University College |
Pulver S.,University of California at Santa Barbara |
Guimaraes L.,University of Maryland University College |
Deshmukh R.,Prayas Energy Group |
Kane J.,University of Maryland University College
Energy Policy | Year: 2012
The carbon market experiences of Brazil and India represent policy success stories under several criteria. A careful evaluation, however, reveals challenges to market development that should be addressed in order to make the rollout of a post-2012 CDM more effective. We conducted firm-level interviews covering 82 CDM plants in the sugar and cement sectors in Brazil and India, focusing on how individual managers understood the potential benefits and risks of undertaking clean development mechanism (CDM) investments. Our results indicate that the CDM operates in a far more complex way in practice than that of simply adding a marginal increment to a project's internal rate of return. Our results indicate the following: first, although anticipated revenue played a central role in most managers' decisions to pursue CDM investments, there was no standard practice to account for financial benefits of CDM investments; second, some managers identified non-financial reputational factors as their primary motivation for pursuing CDM projects; and third, under fluctuating regulatory regimes with real immediate costs and uncertain CDM revenue, managers favored projects that often did not require carbon revenue to be viable. The post-2012 CDM architecture can benefit from incorporating these insights, and in particular reassess goals for strict additionality and mechanisms for achieving it. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Deshmukh R.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory |
Deshmukh R.,University of California at Berkeley |
Bharvirkar R.,Itron |
Gambhir A.,Prayas Energy Group |
Phadke A.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012
Although solar costs have been dropping in recent years, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options, and in most applications solar power still needs continuing government policy support. However, the need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it difficult for policy makers to design an optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints imposed by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. In this paper, we present a framework to critically analyze the objectives behind different country policies, how factors such as macro-economic conditions and development paradigms affect the policy outcomes and finally, how these outcomes affect the overall cost reduction of solar energy. We find that while the extent of cost reduction through creation of large demand remains to be seen, it is essential for governments to provide adequate support for leapfrog RD&D, and exploit real comparative advantages across countries for effective solar cost reduction. Policy makers need to optimally design their policies by balancing national objectives and paying capacity with the global objective of solar power cost reduction in order to realize its full potential. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh D.,Prayas Energy Group |
Sant G.,Prayas Energy Group |
Chunekar A.,Prayas Energy Group
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment | Year: 2012
Despite keen interest shown by Indian policymakers and significant efforts to enhance energy efficiency of the Indian economy, progress has been limited. Initial efforts laudably sought to be comprehensive and cover all sectors and subsectors. However, it resulted in limited human and financial resources being spread too thin resulting in sluggish progress in improving energy efficiency. In addition, several of the approaches tried have not been directly applicable in India because of the challenges of limited institutional capacity and human resources. India should reorganize its efforts, and develop a targeted and tailored strategy based on three principles: (1) target efforts at areas where they will bring about the biggest reductions in energy use ('maximum bang for the buck'); (2) design energy efficiency policies and plans to achieve a radically higher level of implementation; and (3) design programs creatively to succeed under the challenging policy and implementation environment. An approximate estimation of the potential savings in existing and new additions in various consumer categories highlights the importance of new additions particularly in the commercial buildings sector, and the relative importance of different categories. As an example of a tailored and targeted strategy, the paper describes the development of a program for superefficient appliances that is expected to be appropriate for the Indian environment. The paper is intended to add to the discourse on rapid improvement in energy efficiency not only in India, but also in other developing countries that face similar challenges of limited human and financial resources. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..
Rathi S.S.,Prayas Energy Group |
Chunekar A.,Prayas Energy Group
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2015
Recent advancements in behavioral sciences have spurred a lot of interest in its application in the field of energy efficiency and conservation. Cost effective behavioral interventions have shown to induce energy consumers to take positive steps toward reducing their energy consumption. This paper aims to spark interest amongst researchers, policymakers, utilities, appliance manufacturers, energy service companies (ESCOs) and other relevant stakeholders to organize and undertake concerted research into behavioral interventions in energy efficiency and conservation in India and make use of the knowledge to design and implement effective energy policies. In this paper we provide a brief review of behavioral interventions that were successful in promoting energy efficiency and conservation. We also highlight the various limitations and issues regarding behavioral interventions which need to be addressed and resolved. We further identify the challenges to carrying out behavioral interventions in the Indian context and suggest a possible approach to overcome them and steer the direction of behavioral research in India. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Chunekar A.,Prayas Energy Group
Energy Policy | Year: 2014
Energy efficiency levels for the Standards and Labeling (S&L) program in India for frost free (FF) refrigerators are compared with similar programs in China, United States of America (USA), and European Union (EU). A normalization method developed by International Energy Agency (IEA) is adopted with India as a benchmark for comparison. It is observed that the energy consumption level corresponding to minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) is very high in India. India also lags behind other countries on the consumption level corresponding to highest efficiency rating. Also, the range of consumption levels corresponding to a label is wide which dilutes the efficacy of label. India has aggressively proposed to tighten the ratings for FF refrigerators in 2014 by 36% across all the bands. This measure will make its highest efficiency rating comparable to other countries. However, due to the wide gap in the consumption levels across the ratings, the revised MEPS will still lag behind other countries. One possible outcome of high MEPS is that as the ratings are tightened, the market may move to lower star rated models significantly undermining the tightening effect. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.